Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors at the time of diagnosing type 2 diabetes mellitus: follow up in the endocrinologist's consultation
Monica Tomé, Cristobal Morales, Juan Manuel Garcia de Quirós, Ignacio Fernandez, Clara Socorro García, Isabel Serrano & Angel Sendón
Objectives: Our aim is to assess the cardiovascular risk factors that are already present at the time of diagnosing new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
Materials and methods: This was an observational study. From each patient the following data were retrospective collected between January 2008 and September 2009: age, sex, DM in the family, smoking, HbA1c, hypertension (HTA) and dyslipidemia, microangiopathy and macroangiopathy, lipids and medical treatment. We assess the cardiovascular risk of our population with the UKPDS risk engine model v2.0 at the time of diagnosing DM and 3 months after initiating therapy.
Results: We studied 102 patients (62.7% men and 37.3% women) with a median age of 54.5±13.5 years old. The median BMI was 31.7 kg/m2 (±6.3). There was a family history of DM in 60.8%, 42% smokers, 32.4% dyslipidemia, 41.2% HTA. The prevalence of ischemic cardiopathy (CI), stroke (AVC) and peripheral arterial disease was respectively 14.7, 7.8 and 3.9%. We found microangiopathy and diabetic retinopathy in 14.7% and 8% respectively. After 3 months of follow up there was a statistical significantly decrease (P<0.05) in HbA1c (10.6±2.5 vs 6.3±1.01%), in LDL cholesterol (122±42.9 vs 93±32.4 mg/dl), in triglycerides (302±582 vs 134±79 mg/dl). We observed an increase in BMI from 31.7±6.3 to 32.1±6 kg/m2 that did not reach statistical significance. Assesment of cardiovascular risk (CVR) at diagnosing DM and after 3 months follow up:
|♀ Smokers||♀ Non smokers||♂ Smokers||♂ Non smokers|
|CVR%||CI||IAM †||AVC||CI||IAM †||AVC||CI||IAM †||AVC||CI||IAM †||AVC|
|3 months later||4.4||1.6||1.8||9.6||5.5||4.8||9.9||3.3||2.4||10.4||4.3||2.9|
Conclusion: Our patients with new-onset type 2 DM have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and a global therapeutical approach results in a remarkable decrease of cardiovascular events.