Pattern of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Surabaya, Indonesia
Olivia Handayani & Hans Tandra
Objective: To observe the presentation, anthropometry, and complication of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in diabetes clinic in Surabaya, Indonesia.
Methodology: It is a retrospective review of diabetic cases over 12 months. Data extracted from medical records, DM patients demographic and clinical laboratory parameters.
Results: We investigated 302 T2D patients, 132 males and 170 female, with mean age of 55.9±21.1 years. Mean duration of DM was 6.93±4.13 years. Mean body mass index (BMI) of the subjects was 26.3±3.1 kg/m2. Hyperglycemia presented in 235 (77.8%) T2D patients, with a mean fasting plasma glucose of 158.2±23.1 mg/dl and HbA1c 7.7±2.1%. Only 35 (11.6%) of patients visited our clinic without complications. Others 267 (88.4%) with chronic complications found, i.e. peripheral neuropathy in 177 (58.6%), CVD in 62 (20.5%), retinopathy 52 (17.2%), nephropathy 58 (19.2%), cataract 54 (17.9%), hypertension 61 (20.2%), ischemic heart disease 31 (10.3%), gall bladder stone 46 (15.2%), skin fungal infection 30 (9.9%), and diabetic foot 22 (7.3%). Those complications were more frequent found in poorly regulated diabetics (HbA1c>7%).
Conclusion: Most of the diabetic patients visited diabetes clinic after suffering complications. Those complications were related to poorly controlled of blood sugar. Diabetes education is one of the most important things in the management of diabetes in our country.