Non-invasive cytological method of diagnostics and monitoring of type 2 diabetes mellitus development
Rudolf Yui, Alma Mansharipova, Sholpan Mulkibayeva & Alisher Idrisov
Material for cytological analysis was oral swab of investing type (lip, cheek) in 22 healthy people and 33 sick ones with type 2 diabetes mellitus at sub compensational stage. The group under study was homogenous in age (4565), sex (men) and biorhythmic type. Experiments were performed on human subjects and local Ethical Committee approval was obtained. Oral swabs were fixed in spiritacetone and were MayGrunvalds and RomanovskyGimsas dyed. The epithelial cells at various stages of differentiation were determined in swabs at the rate of 1000 cells. Differentiation and cell keratinisation indexes of epithelium were calculated in swabs according to cytograms. Moreover, blood glucose level was determined. For mathematical data processing correlation analysis and Students criteria were used. The obtained results show that in patients on the 2 days in hospital differentiation index in swabs cytogram was high 495.3±12.4 over control level 436.6±6.2 (P<0.01). Differentiation index increased due to decrease of types 1 and 2 transient cells and increase of surface cells, especially acaryotes. Differentiation index high level was proved by significant cell keratinisation index 22.2±2.1 which exceeded the norm by several times 0.6±0.09 (P<0.01). Differentiation and cell keratinisation indexes of epithelium significantly decreased on the 6 and 12 days of treatment by drugs of metformin and sulfanilureal groups (P<0.01), but did not reach the norm. Strong correlative connection was discovered between studied cytological indexes and blood glucose level on the 2, 6 and 12 days of treatment. In this way, non-invasive cytological method allows to diagnose and monitor the compensation level of metabolic processes in type 2 diabetes mellitus and reduce the period of its control. This method is simple enough and can be used in any standard morphological laboratory, it is comparatively cheep.