Analysis of incidence and risks factors of gestational diabetes in our area: comparison between two periods
Beatriz Mantinan Gil, Reyes Luna Cano, Paula Sanchez Sobrino, Regina Palmeiro Carballeira, Concepción Páramo Fernández, Manuel Penin Alvarez & Ricardo Victor García Mayor
Introduction: Gestational diabetes (GD) is frequently associated with obesity and family history of diabetes. Besides these, other risks factors have been proposed, as previous GD, macrosomy or abnormal reproductive history.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective comparative study including all patients diagnosed of GD during 1999 and 2008. The analyzed variables were incidence and risk factors of GD.
Results: We included 384 patients, 131 from 1999 (group I) and 253 from 2008 (group II). GD incidence rate was 3.4% in group I and 5.4% in group II. The average age of the sample is 32.03±5.15 years (group I) and 33.7±4.84 (group II). Risk factors of both groups are summarized in the following table.
|Group I (%)||Group II (%)||P|
|Previous perinatal mortality||0.8||0||0.42|
|Weight gain||9.71±4.07 kg||8.41±4.35 kg||0.005|
Conclusion: We observed an increase GD incidence between the two periods studied, probably caused by the introduction in the year 2000 of GD universal screening with oral glucose tolerance test. Previously, diagnostic tests were confined only to increased risk pregnant. GD patient characteristics were similar in the two periods studied except for hypertension, which was observed more frequently in patients diagnosed during 1999. This study showed an increase obesity incidence in group II, as in the general population, without reaching statistical significance.