The T and B cell subsets in thyroids of children with Graves disease and Hashimotos thyroiditis
I. Ben-Skowronek, L. Szewczyk, R. Piekarski, M. Klatka & E. Korobowicz
Background: Autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD) similar in pathomorphology picture results in hyper- or hypothyreosis. The differences between Graves disease (GD) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) suggested that changes in the subsets of T-cells may have an influence on the course of this reaction.
Methods: The study involved 90 children: 30 with GD, 30 with HT and the control group 30 children. After thyroidectomy, standard histological examinations and immunohistochemical reactions in paraffin specimens with monoclonal antibodies against T-cell markers CD3, CD4, CD8 as well as against B-cells -CD79 alpha were performed. Ultrathin sections were examined in the Transmission Electron Microscope.
Results: The autoimmune reaction in GD consists in increased number of CD4+ cells (3.17±4.27%) and plasma cells (22.89±8.61%) producing TRAb and stimulating thyrocytes to activity. The number of CD4+ cells was increased in comparison to healthy children (0.19±0.05%) and to HT (0.93±9.90%). The autoimmune reaction in HT is consist in antibody dependent cytotoxicity in circumstances of a low number of CD4+ cells and an increased number of CD8+cells (20.54±0.68%) in the thyroid tissue in comparison to GD (6.86±3.46%) and control group (0.65±0.30%). Plasma cells (31.65±9.11%) in this situation produced the antibodies involved in cytotoxic reactions against thyrocytes.
Conclusion: The Gravesdisease was characterised due to increased number of CD4+T cells and increased number CD8+T cells. Hashimotos thyroiditis characterised by low number CD4+T cells and increased CD8+Tcells. CD8+T cells have the cytotoxic properties only in Hashimotos thyroiditis.
Declaration of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the research project.
Funding: This work was supported, however funding details unavailable.