Study of hormone and thyroid antibodies of auto-immune thyroid disorders
Auto-immune thyroid diseases (AITD) such as Graves disease (GD) and Hashimotos thyroiditis (HT) which are archetypical organ specific auto-immune diseases are increasing in recent years and about 24% of women and up to 1% of men are affected worldwide, and the prevalence rate increases with advancing age. The AITD are characterized by the presence of raised serum antibodies directed against thyroid antigens. The development of antibodies to antithyroid microsomal antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody and antithyrotropin receptor antibody (TR-Ab) is the main hallmark of AITD. HT is diagnosed by TPO-Ab, and/or Tg-Ab positively, a negative TR-Ab level and, the presence of diffuse goiter. Thyroid antibody testing is not routinely available in developing countries, and few studies have measured thyroid antibodies in Mongolia.
Thyroid hormones in serum, Tg-Ab, TPO-Ab using an ELISA technique in 209 patients with various thyroid pathologies attending an endocrine department in Shastin Central Hospital. Patients were clinically grouped into Graves disease (n=160) and Hashimotos thyroiditis (n=39). Blood donors without thyroid disease (n=30) acted as controls. During the study we performed blood test for thyroid hormones in nine patients with enlarged thyroid gland in euthyroidism, 30-hypothyroidism with unknown etiology.
The levels of thyroid hormones were analyzed in patients with Graves disease. To determine thyroid hormones in patients with GD, thyroid hormones were 3.97±0.3 nm/l, determine thyroid hormones in the euthyroidism were 1.72±0.13 nm/l, in patients with hypothyroidism 0.29±0.03 ng/ml. Thyroid TPOAb was 100% positive in all euthyroidism and hypothyroidism. In subjects with euthyroidism TGAb was 189.27±94 IU/ml, and during hypothyroidism TGAb was 888.8±216.7 IU/ml.
Study results showed the increase in T3 and T4 levels decreased TSH with Graves disease. In the euthyroidism of thyroid hormones were revealed normal, in patients with hypothyroidism T3, T4 were low, TSH was high with Hashimotos thyroiditis.Thyroid autoimmunity appears more common in patients with GD and HT, and Tg-Ab, TPO-Ab were significantly associated with auto-immune thyroid disease.
Declaration of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the research project.
Funding: This research did not receive any specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sector.