Aberrant expression of TRAIL in placenta and maternal serum in early pregancy complications
K. Rull1, K. Tomberg1, S. Kõks1, J. Männik1, M. Möls1, M. Sirotkina2, S. Värv1 & M. Laan1
Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as ≥3 consecutive pregnancy losses and occurs in 13% of fertile couples. No specific early biomarkers with high predictive value of threatening miscarriage have been identified. Using GeneChips (Affymetrix), we profiled whole-genome differential gene expression in RM placental tissue compared to uncomplicated pregnancies matched for gestational age. In cases of RM, significantly increased placental mRNA expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL; P<0.005) and S100A8 (P<0.001) encoding for inflammatory marker calprotectin (S100A8/A9) was confirmed by Taqman RT-qPCR. Using ELISA, the concentrations of soluble TRAIL and calprotectin in maternal serum in normal first trimester (n=35) and failed pregnancies (early, n=18 and late miscarriage, n=4; tubal pregnancy, n=11) were determined. When compared to normal first trimester pregnancy, significantly higher maternal serum concentration of sTRAIL was detected at the RM event (P<0.001), in women with tubal pregnancy (P<0.05), and in pregnant women, who developed an unpredicted miscarriage 250 days after prospective serum sampling (P<0.05). Maternal serum levels of calprotectin were neither diagnostic nor prognostic to early pregnancy failures (P>0.05). sTRAIL may have a potential as a predictive biomarker in maternal serum for early pregnancy complications.
Declaration of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the research project.
Funding: This work was supported, however funding details unavailable.