Introduction: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate thyroid autoantibodies, celiac antibodies and antiparietal antibody in patients with type 1 DM.
Methods: Thyroid antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibodies, antiinsulin, antiislet cell and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) antibodies, antiparietal antibody, antiendomisium, antigliadin IgA and IgG antibodies were obtained from the records in patients diagnosed and followed with type 1 DM in our clinic. Also, thyroid functional status and serum vitamin B12 levels were evaluated. In available patients, thyroid ultrasonography (US) findings were recorded.
Results: One hundred and sixty-one patients with type 1 DM were included in the study. Antibodies related to type 1 DM were obtained in 117 patients and 63 (53.80%) had positive anti-GAD, 4 (3.42%) had positive antiinsulin, 13 (11.11%) had positive antiislet cell antibodies. Thyroid functions were normal in 138 (85.71%) patients, 18 (11.18%) had hypothyroidism and 5 (3.11%) had thyrotoxicosis. Anti-TPO antibody was positive in 55 (34.16%), Anti-Tg was positive in 31 (19.25%) patients, and in 58 (36.02%) patients at least one of these antibodies was positive. Thyroid US was performed in 113 patients, 59 (52.21%) had normal thyroid US findings, 49 (43.37%) had chronic thyroiditis with or without nodules, 18 (15.93%) had solitary or multiple nodules. Celiac antibodies were positive in 15 (14.42%) of 104 patients. Among 77 patients with available antiparietal antibody, it was positive in 9 (11.69%) and negative in 68 (88.31%) patients. Forty-six (28.57%) patients had vitamin B12 levels lower than 250 pg/ml.
Conclusion: Autoantibodies related to various diseases may be observed with high frequency in patients with type 1 DM. It seems reasonable to screen for concomitant thyroid diseases, celiac disease and vitamin B12 deficiency by measuring specific antibodies in a patient newly diagnosed with type 1 DM.
30 Apr - 04 May 2011
European Society of Endocrinology