Objective: The occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes is a widely discussed issue, less so in those with type 1 (T1DM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of these complications as well as certain risk factors that they are associated with.
Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study by analyzing data from the observation charts of 106 patients evaluated in our clinic between January 2015 and December 2016. All patients had a history of T1DM of more than 20 years. We assessed the occurrence of hypertension (HT), stroke, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and peripheral artery disease (PAD), as well as certain risk factors. One patient was excluded due to insufficient information.
Results: We included 105 patients (46% women), with a mean age of 51.46±12.58 years, mean disease duration of 30.16±8.69 years and the mean age at diagnosis of 21.31±11.82 years. The frequency of chronic diabetes complications was: 87% retinopathy, 89% neuropathy, 42% nephropathy and 12% amputations, and for CVD: 60% HT, 10% ACS, PAD 19 and 5% stroke. There was a statistically significant higher risk in patients diagnosed with CVD in regard to the mean age, mean duration of disease and mean age at diagnosis of T1DM. There was a statistically significant correlation for the presence of peripheral neuropathy and nephropathy in patients with HT (P-value 0.0205 and 0.0001 respectively). Patients suffering from PAD had a worse glycemic control (HbA1C 9.4 vs 8.80%, P-value=0.033) and lower HDL-cholesterol levels (54.04 vs 63.30 mg/dl, P-value=0.040) than those without. Patients who had suffered a stroke had better cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels (158.8 vs 189.04 mg/dl, P-value=0.000196 and 81.8 vs 106.33 mg/dl, P-value=0.029 respectively).
Conclusion: More attention should be awarded in the screening for CVD in patients with a long history of T1DM.
20 - 23 May 2017
European Society of Endocrinology