Background and aims: Gestational diabetes (GD) is closely related to unbalanced zinc (Zn) and cooper (Cu) serum levels. The aim of this study was to investigate serum zinc and cooper levels in relation to the metabolic profile, and the impact on fetal development in a cohort of gestational diabetes GD(N) neonates and their mothers GD(M) compared to normal pregnancies.
Material and Methods: Prospective controlled study in a tertiary Academic medical center. The study population included 101 mother/neonate pairs; 50 control group (C) and 51 GD group. Intervention: Diet and/or insulin administration in GD(M). Anthropometric, metabolic parameters, and trace elements serum levels were assessed.
Results: Age and body weight change during pregnancy (ΔBW) were similar in both groups. HbA1c was comparable between C and GD group (5.37±0.34 and 5.39±0.48%, for C and GD respectively, P=0.844). Mean serum Cu levels were (150.1±45.85, 32.16±43.37)μg/dl in C and (203.53±65.63, 23.62±13.42)μg/dl in GD, mean Zn levels (87.8±17.48, 120.47±37.16)μg/dl in C and (88.1±27.1, 113.76±36.77)μg/dl in GD, for mothers and neonates, respectively. Neonates had statistically significantly lower serum Cu levels but higher Zn levels compared to their mothers (P<0.0001, P<0.0001). Serum cooper levels in mothers (Cu(M) levels were statistically significantly higher in GD(M) compared to C(M) (P<0.0001). There was a negative correlation between Zn(M) and insulin levels(M) in C (r=−0.284, P=0.045), between Zn(M) and insulin(N) in GD (r=−0.372, P=0.012), and between Zn(N) and head circumference in C group (r=−0.423, P=0.013). There was a positive correlation between Cu(N) and insulin(N) in GD (r=0.365, P=0.019), and between Cu (M) and birth weight in C (r=0.304, P=0.042).
Conclusions: Serum cooper levels are higher in women with gestational diabetes and independently of diabetes control. Both serum trace element levels in neonates seem to correlate with neonatal head circumference and birth weight only in control group.
20 - 23 May 2017
European Society of Endocrinology