Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is increasing in prevalence worldwide. Sex differences in glycaemia attainment may be relevant in the management of type 2 DM.
This study determined gender differences in glycaemic targets in patients with type 2 diabetes attending the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex (OAUTHC), Ile- Ife.
Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study involved four hundred (400) type 2 diabetes patients, males and females, who were consecutively recruited from the diabetes clinic of OAUTHC, Ile-Ife from May to December 2014. Relevant clinical information and physical examination data were obtained. Venous blood sample was collected for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and two hours postprandial blood glucose (2HPP), HBA1c, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides. Glycaemic target were set using FPG < 7.2 mmol/l, 2HPP<10.0 mmol/l, HBA1c < 7%, blood pressure <130/80 mmHg, total cholesterol < 200 mg/dl, triglycerides < 150 mg/dl, LDL <100 mg/dl and HDL >40 mg/dl (1.1 mmol/l) in males and >50 mg/dl (1.3 mmol/l) in females.
Results: Of the 400 patients with type 2 DM, 190(47.5%) were males and 210 (52.5%) were female respectively. The mean age of the study population was 60.6 + 9.93 years and duration of DM was 7.81 + 5.76 years.
Women had higher prevalence of hypertension (83.3% versus 72.1%) than men P<0.05. Mean total cholesterol was significantly higher in women (4.45 mmol/l) than in men (4.08 mmol/l); P=0.001 and more men achieved LDL treatment goals than women (69.5% vs. 59.0%, P<0.05).
More women reached the target glycaemic goals of <10 mmol/l for 2HPP and HBA1c of <7.0% than men P<0.05.
Conclusions: Women with T2DM had a worse profile in terms of hypertension and lipid goals; and men achieved therapeutic goals less frequently than did women in terms of glycaemia.
Key words: Type 2 diabetes, gender, hypertension, cholesterol, glycaemic goals.