Searchable abstracts of presentations at key conferences in endocrinology

ea0012oc12 | Placenta, bone and genetics | SFE2006

Physiological blockade of gut hormones increases food intake

Kokkinos A , Vincent RP , le Roux CW , Ghatei MA , Bloom SR

BackgroundAppetite is complex, however to address the obesity epidemic, therapeutic agents would have to significantly influence appetite. Currently the most effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery because it reduces hunger and increases satiety. The satiety gut hormones such as peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) reduce appetite and food intake. Compared to lean and obese subjects, exaggerated postprandial responses of PYY ...

ea0012oc3 | Young Endocrinologist prize session | SFE2006

Co-administration of SR141716 with peptide YY or oxyntomodulin has additive effects on food intake in mice

White NE , Dhillo WS , Small CJ , Lui YL , Gardiner JV , Ghatei MA , Bloom SR

BackgroundSR141716 (Rimonabant) has been shown to significantly inhibit food intake and reduce body weight in rodents and humans by antagonising CB1 receptors. The gut hormones peptide YY3–36 (PYY3–36) and oxyntomodulin (OXM), released from L-cells in the small intestine inhibit food intake in both rodents and humans and this effect is thought to be mediated via the hypothalamus.Objective<...

ea0011oc26 | Diabetes and metabolism | ECE2006

Neuropeptide S is a novel peptide which potently stimulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and inhibits food intake

Smith KL , Patterson M , Dhillo WS , Patel SR , Semjonous NM , Gardiner JV , Ghatei MA , Bloom SR

Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a recently discovered peptide shown to be involved in the modulation of arousal and fear responses. It has also been shown that lateral ventricle administration of NPS causes a significant decrease in food intake. Neuropeptides involved in the modulation of arousal have been shown to be involved in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and food intake.Objective: To examine the effect of NPS on the regulati...

ea0011p592 | Neuroendocrinology and behaviour | ECE2006

Appetite regulating hormones in constitutionally lean and anorexia nervosa subjects

Galusca B , Germain N , le Roux CW , Frere D , Ghatei MA , Bloom SR , Estour B

Energy balance is controlled by the arcuate nucleus through integration of peripheral hormonal signals such as leptin, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1). The commonest reason for young women in the developed world to be underweight is restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN). Constitutionally thinness (CT) has been described in young women who satisfies the WHO definition for moderate to severe underweight (BMI 13–16.9 kg/m2). CT women have...

ea0008oc9 | Neuroendocrinology and Reproduction | SFE2004

Triiodothyronine Directly Regulates Feeding

Martin NM , Kong WM , Smith KL , Gardiner JV , Small CJ , Ghatei MA , Bloom SR

The increased appetite associated with hyperthyroidism is assumed to be secondary to an increased metabolic rate. However, the role of thyroid hormones in appetite regulation is poorly understood. We hypothesised that thyroid hormones directly regulate food intake and studied the effects of peripheral and CNS administration of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on food intake in male Wistar rats in vivo.A single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 4.5 nmol per ...

ea0008oc10 | Neuroendocrinology and Reproduction | SFE2004

Subcutaneous administration of ghrelin and its effects on food intake in man

Druce MR , Neary NM , Monteiro M , Small C , Ghatei M , Bloom SR

The gastric hormone ghrelin increases appetite and energy intake when administered by intravenous infusion to human subjects and has recently been reported to increase energy intake in patients with anorexia of cancer. Ghrelin also stimulates growth hormone release. We have now investigated whether subcutaneous administration of ghrelin is effective. Approval of the local ethics committee was obtained. Following a preliminary dose-finding study, 16 lean healthy volunteers rece...

ea0008p43 | Diabetes, metabolism and cardiovascular | SFE2004

Effect of ghrelin on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes and role of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a

Patel A , Stanley SA , Gardiner JV , Ghatei MA , Frost G , Bloom SR

The endogenous growth hormone secretagogue (GHS), ghrelin, is an important regulator of energy homeostasis. Peripheral and central administration of ghrelin increase food intake, body weight and fat mass, effects which are mediated by the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R 1a). Although the central actions of ghrelin on adiposity have been extensively studied, the direct peripheral effects of ghrelin on adipose tissue remain poorly understood. This study aimed...

ea0012p92 | Reproduction | SFE2006

Continuous administration of kisspeptin-54 leads to desensitisation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis and testicular degeneration

Appleby GF , Thompson EL , Murphy KG , Patterson M , Bewick GA , Stamp GWH , Todd JF , Ghatei MA , Bloom SR

Kisspeptin-54 is a neuropeptide encoded by the Kiss-1 gene with an important role in the regulation of reproduction and puberty. Acute peripheral or intra-hypothalamic administration of kisspeptin-54 potently stimulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis via hypothalamic gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. However, the effects of chronic continuous kisspeptin administration are poorly characterised. Our studies investigated the effects of chronic, continu...

ea0011p690 | Reproduction | ECE2006

Chronic subcutaneous administration of kisspeptin-54 causes testicular degeneration in adult male rats

Thompson EL , Murphy KG , Patterson M , Bewick GA , Jethwa PH , Stamp GWH , Todd JF , Ghatei MA , Bloom SR

The kisspeptins are KiSS-1 gene-derived peptides which signal through the G protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54), and have recently been shown to be critical regulators of reproduction. Acute intracerebroventricular (ICV) or peripheral administration of kisspeptin to rodents and primates, and peripheral administration to humans, stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. This effect is thought to be mediated via the hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (G...

ea0008oc23 | Young Endocrinologist Session | SFE2004

Adrenal and circulating agouti related protein (AgRP) is upregulated in Cushing's syndrome suggesting a novel inhibitory paracrine role in the human adrenal gland

Dhillo WS , Castle L , Gardiner JV , Bewick GA , Smith KL , Meeran K , Todd JF , Ghatei MA , Bloom SR

Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is an agonist at the melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3-R) and MC4-R and stimulates corticosterone release from rat and human adrenal cells. Patients with Cushing's syndrome have elevated levels of serum alpha-MSH. Agouti related protein (AgRP) is an endogenous antagonist at the MC3-R and MC4-R and is expressed in the rat adrenal cortex. AgRP antagonises alpha-MSH-induced corticosterone release from rat and bovine adrenal cells. This ...