Searchable abstracts of presentations at key conferences in endocrinology

ea0003p221 | Reproduction | BES2002

Oxygen tension regulates placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2

Driver P , Hewison M , Kilby M , Stewart P

11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11 beta-HSD2) is responsible for the conversion of hormonally active cortisol (F) to inactive cortisone (E), and is expressed in mineralocorticoid target tissues (kidney, colon). However, the most abundant source of this enzyme is human placenta, notably placental trophoblast where it is thought to protect the fetus from maternal hypercortisolaemia and play a role in fetal growth and development. During gestation placental trophobla...

ea0003p245 | Steroids | BES2002

Carbenoxolone, an inhibitor of 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, reduces intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension

Cheung C , Rauz S , Murray P , Stewart P

Our recent studies have localised 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 beta HSD1), which activates cortisol from cortisone, to the human ocular non-pigmented ciliary epithelium, and in an open blinded study conducted on healthy male volunteers, systemic inhibition of this isozyme with oral carbenoxolone (CBX) resulted in a 17% reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether CBX reduced IOP in patients with ocular hypertension (...

ea0003p256 | Steroids | BES2002

Expression of adipose 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in human obesity

Tomlinson J , Sinha B , Hewison M , Stewart P

Central obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation contribute to increases in adipose tissue mass, yet the mechanisms that underpin these processes remain unclear. Patients with glucocorticoid excess develop central obesity, but circulating cortisol levels in idiopathic obesity are normal. The enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) converts inactive cortisone (E) to active cortisol (F)...

ea0003p258 | Steroids | BES2002

In vitro expression of catalytically active human aldosterone synthase

Inglis G , Davies E , Stewart P , Fraser R , Connell J

The key enzymes in the terminal stages of human adrenal gland corticosteroid biosynthesis are aldosterone synthase (AS) and 11beta-hydroxylase (11beta-OHase). Their amino acid sequences differ by only 7% but they exhibit markedly different enzymatic activities. AS is expressed solely in the zona glomerulosa and converts 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) to aldosterone whereas 11beta-OHase is expressed mainly in the zona fasciculata and produces cortisol from 11-deoxycortisol. The 3...

ea0077oc5.4 | Bone and Calcium | SFEBES2021

Nuclear factor I/X (NFIX) regulates the transcriptional activity of the cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 (CRABP2) promoter and alters CRABP2 expression in Marshall-Smith Syndrome (MSS) patients.

Kooblall Kreepa , Stevenson Mark , Lines Kate , Stewart Michelle , Wells Sara , Teboul Lydia , Hennekam Raoul , Thakker Rajesh

Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) is a congenital disorder affecting skeletal and neural development, due to mutations in the nuclear factor I/X (NFIX) gene. NFIX encodes a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that regulates the expression of viral and cellular genes. To identify novel genes that are misregulated by NFIX mutations, RNA sequencing and proteomics analyses were performed on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells derived from a repres...

ea0077p17 | Adrenal and Cardiovascular | SFEBES2021

The 4E (Engage, Educate, Equip and Empower): A framework for supporting the approach in the prevention, early recognition and effective management of adrenal crisis in adults

Criseno Sherwin , Gleeson Helena , Shepherd Lisa , Stewart Maria , De Val Jennifer

Introduction: Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI), continue to face many challenges including: dealing with symptoms and associated disorders; managing medication regimens; prevention and management of complications, and effective engagement and interactions with healthcare providers. In patients with AI, adrenal crisis (AC) continues to lead to unnecessary deaths. We illustrate how University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust used the 4E framework (En...

ea0077p184 | Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes | SFEBES2021

Does human serum impact differentiation and mitochondrial function of human LHCN-M2 skeletal muscle cells?

Turner Mark , Saini Amarjit , Brown Holly , Anisi Sara , Stewart Claire , Renshaw Derek

Introduction: Skeletal muscle cells enable investigation of myogenesis and metabolic function in vitro. Exposure to human serum can provide insight into the impact of endocrine factors upon differentiation and mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle. The aim of these experiments was to optimise the culture conditions using human serum, which it was hypothesised would enhance myogenesis and mitochondrial function of LHCN-M2 human skeletal muscle cells.<p class="a...

ea0081rc13.6 | Rapid Communications 13: Adrenal and Cardiovascular Endocrinology 2 | ECE2022

Mild autonomous cortisol secretion in patients with adrenal incidentalomas and raised cardiovascular risk

Sagar Rebecca , Fraser Sheila , Collins Emma , Frood Russell , Scarsbrook Andrew , M Stewart Paul , Abbas Afroze

Background: Adrenal incidentalomas are common and require investigation to exclude malignancy and evidence of hormone overproduction. Clinical guidelines recommend overnight dexamethasone suppression tests (ONDST) to assess for cortisol hypersecretion with cortisol levels of 50-138 nmol/l termed “mild autonomous cortisol secretion” (MACS). MACS may be associated with both cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity. We assessed cardiovascular risk in patients with MACS us...

ea0086p273 | Reproductive Endocrinology | SFEBES2022

Interleukin-15, a pleiotropic cytokine, is increased in the mammary gland during lactation

Robinson Maya , Allen Lois , Asteljoki Juho , Rostom Hussam , Meng Xin , Stewart Michelle , Elajnaf Taha , Hannan Fadil

Lactation promotes infant development and confers long-term health benefits to mothers and infants. However, the endocrine and paracrine mechanisms mediating milk synthesis remain to be fully elucidated. Hormones such as prolactin and progesterone trigger the onset of lactation, whereas local mammary factors are considered to play a greater role in the maintenance of milk synthesis. We hypothesised that mammary epithelial cytokines are required for established lactation, and u...