Recently was established, that in the ovary Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is produced by the granulose cells and correlated with the count of small antral follicles. As AMH is largely expressed throughout folliculogenesis, it is considered that the serum levels of AMH may represent both the quantity and quality of the ovarian follicle pool. To determine the changes of AMH in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) we have studied 22 patients with this disorder and compared their results to those of 20 healthy women at the same age without hyperandrogenism. The AMH levels in women with PCOS (42.34±6.42 pmol/l) were significantly elevated in comparison with those of the controls (21.58±3.41 pmol/l), P<0.01. AMH concentrations in the overweight patients were with 32.16% higher than in the normal weight women, but the difference was not statistically significant. After six months metformin therapy 2550 mg/daily the levels of AMH decreased from 44.84±10.07 to 35.97±7.06 pmol/l, but not significantly, whereas the total testosterone levels reduced significantly from 3.51±0.33 to 2.58±0.26 nmol/l, P<0.05.
Significant inverse correlations of serum levels of AMH with insulin concentrations (r=−0.452, P<0.05) as well as with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (r=−0.613, P<0.05) were found in the controls.
In conclusion, the serum levels of AMH are increased in women with PCOS and AMH measurement can be used as a marker with high specificity and sensitivity for PCOS.