Aim: Acromegaly is an endocrine disorder characterized by sustained elevation of circulating GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1). IGF1 is a potent mitogen and has a role in the transformation of normal cells to malignant cells. Micronucleus (MN) frequency is a biomarker of chromosomal damage, genome instability and cancer risk. Our study aimed to evaluate spontaneous MN frequency by using the cytokinesis block MN assay to determine genetic damage in lymphoytes of patients with acromegaly.
Material and methods: The study was performed in 22 newly diagnosed patients with acrmegaly and age/sex matched 16 healthy control subjects. MN values scored in binucleated cells obtained from mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes of patients and control subjects. The distribution of binucleated cells with 1, 2, 3 and more MN was also scored.
Results: We found significantly higher MN frequency in lymphocytes of the patients with acromegaly than the control subjects (P=0.001). We observed that the number of binucleated cells with two MN was greater for majority of patients with acromegaly than for control subjects. The important findings of this study were the presence of binucleated cells with three but binucleated cells with three MN were not found in any healthy subject.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that the increased MN frequency in lymphocytes of patients with aromegaly may reflect genomic instability and the increased MN frequency in the patients may associate with elevated levels of circulating GH and IGF1.