To date, studies focusing on long-term cardiovascular risk (CVR) of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women are not available, as well as longitudinal data regarding the endothelial structure and function.
The aim of this observational study was to examine both endothelial structure and function in young women with PCOS at 5-year follow-up.
Thirty PCOS women (age 22.2±2.5 years, mean±S.D.; BMI 22.4±2.1, kg/m2) were evaluated at baseline and at 5-year follow-up (mean time follow-up=5.2±0.4 years).
Primary outcomes were intima media thickness (IMT) by carotid ultrasonography (US) and flow mediated dilation (FMD) by brachial artery US.
Secondary outcomes were clinical, hormonal, and metabolic parameters.
No significant differences in IMT and FMD were found between baseline and 5-years follow-up. No significant differences between baseline and 5-year follow-up were found in androgen levels. Conversely, at 5-year follow-up, insulin sensitivity index worsened; in fact, 5-year AUCINS was significantly increased compared to baseline (7230±1520 vs 5404±1227, P<0.001, respectively).
In conclusion, the present data show that at 5 years follow-up, normal-weight, non-dyslipidemic, non-hypertensive women do not worsen their early impairment in endothelial structure and function; therefore, CVR does not seem to be increased long-term in PCOS women.