Background: Adipocytokines are biologically active substances produced by adipocyte with different physiological functions. Adiponectin, an adipocyte derived protein has multiple effects on homeostatic mechanism that regulate body weight and metabolism. Leptin, a signal of satiety to the brain, is considered as a proinflammatory adipocytokine. Thyroid hormones act on several aspects of metabolic and energy homeostasis influencing body weight, thermogenesis, and lipolysis in adipose tissue. Attention has recently been focused on the relationship between adipocytokines and thyroid dysfunction, however studies showed a controversial results.
Objectives: To study the serum adiponectin and leptin in patients with thyroid dysfunction both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in a cohort of Egyptian females.
Design and method: This study included 45 female subjects aged 2555 years who were divided into: Group I: 15 subjects newly diagnosed to have hyperthyroidism. Group II: 15 subjects newly diagnosed to have hypothyroidism. Group III: 15 healthy individuals. All individuals were subjected to full clinical history, thorough clinical examination, fT3, fT4, TSH, serum adiponectin and leptin.
Results: Our study revealed that serum adiponectin was significantly higher in patients with hyperthyroidism (51.87±10.01 ng/ml) than hypothyroid (9.27±1.98 ng/ml) and euthyroid subjects (13.93±2.81 ng/ml) (P<0.05) while serum leptin was significantly higher in hypothyroid group (13.27±2.46 ng/ml) (P<0.05). We also found that serum adiponectin had positive highly significant correlation with fT3 and fT4 (P<0.01) while it had negative highly significant correlation with BMI, weight, TSH and leptin (P<0.01). A highly positive significant correlation was found between serum leptin and weight, BMI and TSH (P<0.01). On the contrary it had negative significant correlation with fT3, fT4 and adiponectin (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The circulating adiponectin and leptin are affected by thyroid hormone levels. Adiposity could be the metabolic link between thyroid status and adipocytokines.