Searchable abstracts of presentations at key conferences in endocrinology
Previous issue | Volume 26 | ECE2011 | Next issue

13th European Congress of Endocrinology

Poster Presentations

Female reproduction

ea0026p90 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Ovulation induction by metformin in lean and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Popova P V , Ivanova L I , Karonova T L , Grineva E N

Introduction: Metformin is now one of the most common treatments for PCOS. However controversy exists about the usefulness of metformin in PCOS women with normal insulin sensitivity and normal weight. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of metformin treatment for the purpose of restoration of ovulation in lean and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Design: Thirty-six unovulatory women with PCOS (21 lean with mean body mass index (BMI) 2...

ea0026p91 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Detection and exploring the left shift kurtosis of the fertile window in ovulatory cycles by biophysical biomarkers of the cervical secretion: case report

Lora Jose Maria Murcia , Encina Maria Luisa Esparza

Introduction: The main purpose of this case is to present a case in which the left kurtosis interval of the fertile phase curve, may be evaluated by cheeking the biophysical changing pattern of reproducible methods of viscoelasticity and transparency of the cervical secretion.Case report: This case report included a 24 years old woman who plots a curve in which integrates two biomarkers in relation to the fertile window at the follicular phase. It was re...

ea0026p92 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Prevalence of thyroid pathologies in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

Ozdemir Didem , Cuhaci Neslihan , Balkan Fevzi , Usluogullari Alper , Ersoy Reyhan , Cakir Bekir

Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder characterized by chronic anovulatory oligo-amenorrhea and signs of hyperandrogenism. In this study, we aimed to determine prevalence of thyroid nodules and autoimmune thyroid diseases in patients with PCOS.Methods: Patients diagnosed with PCOS in our endocrinology clinic were included in the study. In patients with irregular menses and/or hirsutism, the diagnosis of PCOS was made by high...

ea0026p93 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Metformin treatment with or without life style changes in the polycystic ovary syndrome

Petranyi G , Zaoura-Petranyi M

Metformin 500 mg three times daily had been advised to our patients suffering from the polycystic ovary syndrome by the Rotterdam criteria who did not want to take contraceptive pills. More recently, we have included life style changes to metformin taking: increased physical activity, low glycaemic index diet (with calorie restriction for the obese). The efficacy of the two treatment forms was compared. The metformin only group consisted of 27 patients (age 18–39 years, m...

ea0026p94 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Development of a mouse model with polycystic ovary syndrome

van Houten E L A F , Mcluskey A , Kramer P , Karels B , Themmen A P N , Visser J A

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women in their reproductive age. Based on the Rotterdam criteria PCOS is defined by two out of the following three criteria: hyperandrogenism, oligo/anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. In addition, PCOS patients are often abdominal obese, which can lead to insulin resistance. The subsequent increased insulin levels stimulate the ovary to further increased androgen production. Thus, the elevated androgen...

ea0026p95 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Kisspeptin: new marker of placental dysfunction?

Miljic D , Cetkovic A , Ljubic A , Miljic P , Djurovic M , Doknic M , Pekic S , Stojanovic M , Patterson M , Ghatei M , Bloom S , Popovic V

Kisspeptin produced by placenta is involved in the regulation of early placental development. Aberrant placental development and placental dysfunction are common in pregnancies with diabetes and hypertension. Parameters of fetal growth, feto-placental circulation, pregnancy outcome, placental weight and morphology were recorded and correlated with kisspeptin levels in pregnant women with diabetes (chronic insulin dependent-IDDM and gestational-GD) and hypertension (chronic-H, ...

ea0026p96 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Tissue specific regulation of CGB gene expression in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) by SP-1 and AP-2

Adams C , Gromoll J

Objective: In the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) the LH is functionally replaced by the chorionic gonadotropin (CG). However, disparate to the human LH/hCG system, marmoset CG is expressed in both, the pituitary and in the placenta. Previously, we could show the presence of a tissue-specific promoter system in the marmoset. Alternative promoters, as well as different first exons, either a pituitary or a novel placenta specific one, are being employed to direct tissue spe...

ea0026p97 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Sexual dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome

Velet Selvinaz , Velet Mustafa , Kadioglu Pinar , Sahmay Sezai

Objective: We aimed to examine sexual dysfunction frequency and relationship between sexual dysfunction and androgen level in polycystic ovary syndrome.Patients and methods: Twenty-five PCOS patients were recruited from the outpatient clinics of the Division of Endocrinology in the Department of Internal Medicine and outpatient clinics of the Department Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty. Twenty-five healthy volunteer age and sex...

ea0026p98 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Oligo-amenorrhea and hyperandrogenaemia in postmenarcheal adolescence

Pinola P , Lashen H , Bloigu A , Puukka K , Ulmanen M , Jarvelin M R , Hartikainen A L , Morin-Papunen L

Introduction: Hyperandrogenaemia in adolescence is associated with hirsutism, acne and menstrual irregularity and is considered as an important risk for polycystic ovary syndrome and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to establish if self-reported oligo/amenorrhea were associated with hyperandrogenemia and metabolic disturbances in adolescence.Subjects and methods: A cross sectional study using postal...

ea0026p99 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Cardiovascular disease risk markers in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis

Toulis K A , Mintziori G , Goulis D G , Kintiraki E , Eukarpidis E , Mouratoglou S A , Pavlaki A , Stergianos S , Poulasouhidou M , Tzellos T G , Tarlatzis B C

Introduction: The relation between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. The aim of the study was to systematically review the relevant trials that have studied CVD risk factors in woman with PCOS (CRP, Hcy, TNF-α, PAI-1, Lp(a), AGEs, VEGF, IL6, ADMA and fibrinogen) and to meta-analyze the best evidence available.Patients and methods: Search was conducted in the MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL d (last update ...

ea0026p100 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

The aldosterone/renin ratio during administration of oral contraceptives with different types of gestogens

Locsei Z , Horvath D , Csizmadia Zs , Toldy E , Kovacs G L , Racz K

Aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) is obtained by measurements of plasma aldosterone (ALD) and either plasma renin activity (PRA) or direct renin concentration (DRC). The various gestogen components (desogestrel, DSG; gestoden, GD; drospirenon, DRSP) of the frequently used oral contraceptives (OC) can influence the ARRs differently. Aim of the study was to analyze the effect of OCs with different gestogens and low-dose estradiol component on ARRs (ALD/PRA versus ALD/DRC).<p cla...

ea0026p101 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Inhibitory effect of DHEAS on leiomyoma growth

Han M , Cha M , Choi I , Ahn H , Byun J

Objective: This study aims to investigate whether DHEAS (Dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate) inhibit the growth of leiomyoma.Method: Total 131 patients were recruited according to the leiomyoma size by transvaginal ultrasonography. Excluding twenties and over fifties, 88 patients were analyzed. The leiomyoma group was classified into three groups, such as mild, moderate and severe. The mild group was defined as the presence of at least one or two leiomyom...

ea0026p102 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

The importance of PIK3R1 gene in polycystic ovary syndrome

Xita N , Chatzikyriakidou A , Georgiou I , Tsatsoulis A

Introduction: Insulin resistance is a main characteristic of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and contributes to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It is thought that in PCOS there is an alteration in the insulin signaling pathway. An important kinase in this pathway is the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), the activity of which has been found to be decreased in PCOS. Based on this observation we investigated whether a single nucleotide polym...

ea0026p103 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Effect of paraoxonase genes on metabolic profile of women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Xita N , Lazaros L , Georgiou I , Tsatsoulis A

Introduction: Increased oxidative stress is considered to be implicated in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). While the regulation of oxidative stress is multifactorial, many studies have been focused on the antioxidant role of paraoxonase (PON). The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association of the Q192R and the L55M polymorphisms of PON1 and the Ser311Cys polymorphism of PON2 with PCOS.Subjects and...

ea0026p104 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), a factor which controls tumor cell proliferation, is estradiol responsive in epithelial ovarian cancer

Machelon V , Redjimi N , Gaudin F , Delbos L , Emilie D , Prevot S , Balabanian K

Little is known about the molecules that contribute to tumor growth in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) that remain the most lethal gynecological neoplasm. Glucocorticoid-Induced Leucine Zipper (GILZ), a leucine zipper protein of 17 kDa, is frequently detected in epithelial tissues with a hormonal background. We detected GILZ in EOC1 and we further demonstrated that this factor which expression is enhanced by estradiol (E2), activates tumor cell proliferat...

ea0026p105 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

rs7566605 SNP of INSIG2 gene is not associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome diagnosis and its phenotypic traits in Romanian subjects

Aflorei D , Radian S , Baculescu N , Gheorghiu M , Fica S , Albu A , Grigorescu F , Coculescu M

Introduction: The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity are related, yet different complex diseases, with the same genes possibly playing different roles in each disease. INSIG2, an obesity-associated gene (by rs7566605 C/C genotype) is a good candidate for PCOS. Its genotypes were not associated with obesity in PCOS patients. To date, there are no published association studies of rs7566605 with PCOS itself.Aim: To perform a case-control associati...

ea0026p106 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

C-peptide serum concentration in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Maciejewska-Jeske M M J , Szczesna A S , Meczekalski B M

Introduction: It is believed that key pathogenic mechanism of PCOS is hyperinsulinemia. Insulin synthesis is linked to C-peptide release, but the role of C-peptide in PCOS remains unknown.Methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate of C-peptide serum levels in obese women with PCOS with concomitant assessment of possible link between C-peptide concentrations and metabolic disturbances and androgens levels in those individuals.Si...

ea0026p107 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Higher metabolic risk with nih diagnostic criteria versus rotterdam criteria for polycystic ovarian syndrome

Anaforoglu Inan , Algun Ekrem , Incecayir Omer , Ersoy Kerem

Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous disease with well established metabolic abnormalities among women of reproductive age. There are various diagnostic criteria to define and establish PCOS. However, there are some conflicting data regarding the the optimal diagnostic criteria for PCOS and the metabolic consequences. We evaluated the clinical, endocrine and metabolic features between main PCOS phenotypes according to different diagnostic criteria.<...

ea0026p108 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Relation of insulin resistance and lipid peroxidation in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Macut D , Lissounov A , Bozic I , Simic T , Bjekic J , Petakov M , Damjanovic S , Savic-Radojevic A

Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent metabolic disorder in women of the reproductive age, and is characterized by multi-factorial cardiovascular risk factors. Insulin resistance is proposed as a central factor linking PCOS to increasing risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to explore a link between insulin resistance and oxidative stress, as a predictor of cardiovascular risk, in young, non-obese PCOS women.Met...

ea0026p109 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

PCOS, coronary heart disease, stroke and the influence of obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis

de Groot P C M , Dekkers O M , Romijn J A , Dieben S W M , Helmerhorst F M

Background: Patients suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are warned for arterial disease. We examined the risk of (non)fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke between PCOS patients and ovulatory, non-PCOS women. Further we assessed the effect of obesity on this riskMethods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled observational studies. Four definitions of PCOS were considered: WHO type II anovulation (1976), NI...

ea0026p110 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

MTHFR mutations in female patients with autoimmune thyroiditis

Bulgar Alexandra , Brehar Andreea , Paun Diana , Dumitrache Constantin

Introduction: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key regulatory enzyme involved in folate and homocysteine metabolism. The enzyme is encoded by a gene located on chromosome 1p36.3. MTHFR mutations frequently met in the population are C667T and A1298C. The impairment of homocysteine metabolism due to MTHFR gene polymorphism influences the risk for diseases such as CVS diseases, certain types of cancer and is associated with certain complications of pregnancy inclu...

ea0026p111 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Plasma testosterone fractions in women with hyperandrogenism

Toldy E , Horvath D , Locsei Z , Racz K , Kovacs G L

Plasma total testosterone (TT) does not provide reliable information about the biological active testosterone, since a large proportion of this hormone is bound to either specific (sex hormone binding globulin, SHBG) or non-specific binding proteins (albumin). Free testosterone (fT) represents not more than 0.7–2.2% of TT while bioavailable testosterone (BA-T) in females is about 15–48% of the TT. The aim was to investigate the analytical and clinical correlations am...

ea0026p112 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Polycystic ovary syndrome and autoimmunity

Petrikova J , Kozakova D , Vrbikova J , Shoenfeld Y , Lazurova I

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by laboratory and/or clinical features consisting of hyperandrogenism with chronic anovulation. and is currently one of the most common endocrinopaties in women of fertile age. PCOS is associated with a variety of endocrine and metabolic disturbances. It is well known that women are more prone to develop autoimmune diseases compared to men and levels of sexual hormones are thought to be responsible for such a difference. Our ai...

ea0026p113 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 gene polymorphism (71A/G HSD17B5 SNP) and effects of oral contraceptive pill on hirsutism, androgens and metabolic profile in non-obese PCOS women: a pilot study

Maier P S , Mattiello S S , Lages L , Spritzer P M

An association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter gene that codify for 17b-HSD5 enzyme (71A>G) with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been suggested in previous studies. Given the role of 17b-HSD5 in androgenic metabolism producing testosterone from precursors, the aim of this study was to assess whether non-obese PCOS women with the variant allele G have different response on hirsutism and on hormonal and metabolic variables to oral contracepti...

ea0026p114 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Does uric acid predict insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome?

Gul O Oz , Ersoy C , Gul B , Cander S , Unal O K , Erturk E , Tuncel E , Imamoglu S

Introduction: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased prevalence of insulin resistance and related disorders. Endothelial dysfunction and chronic inflammation are early findings in the atherosclerotic process. Elevated serum levels of uric acid may reflect low-grade chronic inflammation. But there are controversial data whether increased the uric acid level in PCOS patients. This study was aimed to examine the relationship between uric acid, lipoprotein l...

ea0026p115 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Injected FSH overriding ageing related elevated FSH through high activity of the hypothalomo-pituitary axis, enforces wanted multiple follicle growth in women undergoing IUI

Konig T E , Beemsterboer S N , Overbeek A , Hendriks M L , Heymans M W , Hompes P , Homburg R , Schats R , Lambalk C B

Introduction: The hypothalomo-pituitary response to the loss of ovarian function due to ageing is an increase in GnRH induced gonadothropic activity: FSH. It is thought that the pituitary gives maximum endogenous stimulation leading to FSH levels above the ovarian threshold to develop follicular growth and it is a matter of debate whether exogenous FSH (r-FSH) will or will not improve ovarian response. In intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment r-FSH is used to induce multif...

ea0026p116 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

The influence of LH substitution for GnRH antagonist blocked endogenous LH in older IVF patients

Konig T E , van der Houwen L E E , Beemsterboer S N , Overbeek A , Hendriks M L , Kuchenbecker W K , Bernardus R E , Hompes P , Schats R , Homburg R , Lambalk C B

Introduction: With IVF stimulation a premature pituitary LH surge can ruin the whole procedure. Traditionally prevention of this event is done by administering a GnRH antagonist against endogenous hypothalamic GnRH. The obvious consequence is low LH levels, one of the two gonadotrophines usually not given for ovarian stimulation since for adequate action FSH suffices. However there are indications that LH levels may render too low, in particular in older women. The aim of this...

ea0026p117 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Adiponectin and metabolic syndrome in PCOS patients – beyond obesity

Leustean L , Fica S , Preda C , Ungureanu M C , Cristea C , Mogos S , Mogos V , Vulpoi C

Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased rate of metabolic syndrome (MS). Many studies have proved that adiponectin is closely associated with MS and participate in the disturbances of gonadal axis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of adiponectin levels with MS in PCOS.Patients and methods: Study group included 38 patients with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria) compared to 30 healthy volunteers age and sex matched, all...

ea0026p118 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Ovarian ageing and twinning

van der Stroom E , Konig T E , Vink J , Boomsma D I , Lambalk C B

Dizygotic twinning is the result of fertilization of multiple follicles that develop during one ovulatory cycle. Significant factors contributing to natural DZ multiples are heredity, increased maternal age and higher parity. Older women are at higher risk for DZ twinning because they have a strongly increased risk of multiple follicle growth as a result of diminished ovarian feedback from the due to a smaller available cohort of follicles. FSH increases allowing all follicles...

ea0026p119 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

The role of metabolic hormones ghrelin, leptin and obestatin in control of ovarian functions

Sirotkin Alexander , Meszarosova Monika , Grossmann Roland , Korzhenevskaja Marina , Benco Andrej , Pavlova Silvia

The recent original data concerning interrelationships between metabolic hormones (ghrelin, leptin, obestatin) and feeding, action of metabolic hormones on basic ovarian functions (proliferation, apoptosis, secretory activity, response to gonadotropins, oocyte maturation) and intracellular mechanisms of its action in different species (rabbit, pig, human, chicken) are reviewed. It was shown, that metabolic hormones ghrelin, leptin and obestatin can control proliferation, apopt...

ea0026p120 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Smoking is associated with increased adrenal responsiveness, decreased prolactin levels and a more adverse lipid profile in 650 Caucasian patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

Glintborg D , Mumm H , Hougaard D M , Ravn P , Andersen M

Objective: Smoking may be associated with changes in metabolic risk factors and sex hormones in PCOS.Design: Retrospective trans-sectional study.Patients: Six hundred and fifty caucasian premenopausal women with the diagnoses hirsutism or PCOS were divided according to smoking status: Non-smokers (NS-PCOS=390) and smokers (S-PCOS=260). 119 healthy women were studied as controls (NS-Control=105, S-Control=14)....

ea0026p121 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Normalization of blood loss in women with heavy menstrual bleeding treated with an oral contraceptive containing estradiol valerate/dienogest

Fraser I , Jensen J , Schafers M , Mellinger U , Parke S , Serrani M

Introduction: Two identically designed randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind studies (one conducted in North America and the other one in Europe and Australia) showed that an oral contraceptive containing estradiol valerate (E2V)/dienogest (DNG) in an estrogen step-down, progestogen step-up 28-day regimen was effective in women with heavy and/or prolonged menstrual bleeding without organic pathology. Both studies applied a strict definition of treatment succes...

ea0026p122 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Abstract withdrawn....

ea0026p123 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Self-reported health related quality of life and depression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: associations with selected metabolic and hormonal PCOS features.

Vrbikova Jana , Hill Martin , Vankova Marketa , Kyrou Ioannis

Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age causing symptoms that can lead to depression and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Associations of depression and HRQoL indices with hormonal and metabolic PCOS features have not been adequately studied.Methods/design: Thirty-seven premenopausal women (age: 28±6.4 years; BMI: 28.3±7.2 kg/m2) with PCOS accord...

ea0026p124 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Two hormone for one receptors: dissecting out LH and hCG activity with an in vitro approach.

Casarini Livio , La Marca Antonio , Pignatti Elisa , Simoni Manuela

Introduction: LH and hCG act on the same receptor (LHCGR), have different half-lives and in vivo biopotency. It is not known whether they elicit the same cellular and molecular response. The aim of this study was to compare the kinetics of cAMP response to recombinant LH and hCG.Design: In COS-7 cells permanently expressing the human LHCGR (COS-7/LHCGR) we evaluated LH and hCG dose-response curves, by measuring total cAMP after 3 h of incubation. ...

ea0026p125 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Anti-müllerian hormone as a predictor of ovarian response to metformin in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Popova P V , Zazerskaya I E , Ivanova L I , Karonova T L , Grineva E N

Introduction: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) has an inhibitory role during folliculogenesis, which may contribute to anovulation in polycistic ovary syndrome (PCOS). AMH level has been shown to be a predictor of reproductive response to weight loss and clomiphene citrate in women with PCOS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of AMH as a predictor of improvements in menstrual cyclicity and ovulation induction by metformin in lean women with PCOS.<p class="abs...

ea0026p126 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Cigarette smoking and progesterone and androgen metabolites in premenopausal women

Duskova Michaela , Simunkova Katerina , Hill Martin , Hruskovicova Hana , Pospisilova Hana , Kralikova Eva , Starka Luboslav

Objective: Chronic smoking alters the circulating levels of sex hormones and possibly also the neuroactive steroids, however, the data available is limited.Patients and methods: Therefore, a broad spectrum of free and conjugated steroids and related substances was quantified by GC–MS and RIA in premenopausal smokers and in age-matched (38.9±7.3 years of age) non-smokers in the follicular (FP) and luteal phases (LP) of menstrual cycle (10 non-sm...

ea0026p127 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Influence of smoking cessation on steroid spectrum in premenopausal women

Pospisilova Hana , Duskova Michaela , Simunkova Katerina , Hruskovicova Hana , Hill Martin , Kralikova Eva , Starka Luboslav

Background: Smoking represents the most widespread substance dependence in the world. Several studies show the nicotine’s ability to alter women hormonal homeostasis. Women smokers have higher testosterone and lower estradiol levels throughout life compared to women non-smokers. This negatively affects women reproductive function. Furthermore, alteration of neuroactive and neuroprotective steroids occurs in women smokers, which plays an important role in the activity of t...

ea0026p128 | Female reproduction | ECE2011

Metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes in adult patients with turner’s syndrome under hormonal replacement therapy

Giordano R , Forno D , Baldi M , Lanfranco F , Ghigo E

Turner’s syndrome (TS) is one of the more common genetic disorder, occurring in about 50 per 100.000 live-born girls. TS is caused by complete or partial X chromosome monosomy in a phenotypic female, and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular diseases, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia. In order to examine the metabolic and cardiovascular profile, in 30 adult TS patients under hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), 17β-estra...