Kisspeptin produced by placenta is involved in the regulation of early placental development. Aberrant placental development and placental dysfunction are common in pregnancies with diabetes and hypertension. Parameters of fetal growth, feto-placental circulation, pregnancy outcome, placental weight and morphology were recorded and correlated with kisspeptin levels in pregnant women with diabetes (chronic insulin dependent-IDDM and gestational-GD) and hypertension (chronic-H, pregnancy induced-PIH and pre-eclampsia-PE). Kisspeptin was evaluated in 129 singelton pregnancies by an in-house RIA assay. Samples were collected in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester (T) in patients with IDDM (n=16), H (n=22) and healthy pregnant women (n=25) and in the 2nd and 3rd trimester in patients with GD (n=20), PIH (n=18) and PE (n=28). In pregnancies with IDDM, GD, H and PE kisspeptin levels were significantly lower compared to control group at all time points. Kisspeptin levels in patients with PIH were not significantly different from control group. In PIH and controls no adverse events and no abnormalities in placental morphology and function were recorded. In the 1st T severely decreased kisspeptin levels were associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. In the 2nd T low kisspeptin levels were associated with higher incidence of abnormal placental morphology. In the 3rd T low kisspeptin levels correlated with higher incidence of adverse outcomes (P<0.01) and disturbances in feto-placental circulation (P<0.01). Gestational age, neonatal and placental weight were significantly lower in PE group compared to others (P<0.01). No correlation was found between placental weight and kisspeptin (P>0.05). Significant associations between reduced kisspeptin levels and parameters of placental dysfunction and pregnancy outcome were found in pregnancies with pre-eclampsia, diabetes and chronic hypertension. Larger studies are needed to investigate the role of kisspeptin as a potential new marker of placental dysfunction.
30 Apr - 04 May 2011
European Society of Endocrinology