Introduction: Cigarette smoking is one of the most serious substance abuse problems. It is generally accepted that nicotine and other chemicals in tobacco smoke alter endocrine function in women, induce changes in female hormonal balance and likely contributes to reported associations of smoking with adverse reproductive outcomes, including menstrual dysfunction, infertility, and earlier menopause. Studies on the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on female sex hormones have concentrated mainly on premenopausal women. In our study, we monitor changes of hormonal levels in postmenopausal women during smoking cessation.
Methods: We examined 60 postmenopausal women (average age 57.7 years, average BMI 26), before initiating of smoking cessation and after 6, 12, 24 and 48 weeks of abstinence. In the data analysis, we included seven women (average age 63.3 years), who got through. A broad spectrum of steroid metabolites, LH, FSH and SHBG, also basic anthropometric data were measured using GCMS or immunoanalysis. Repeated measures ANOVA model was used for evaluation of the data. The local Ethics Committee approved the study, and all patients signed an informed consent form before taking part in the study.
Results: We found increasing levels of androgens (testosterone, androsterone) during smoking cessation, increasing of DHEA was insignificant. Conjugated to nonconjugated 20alfa pregnanolon ratio was significantly decreasing. Changes in the levels of other C21 steroids were not significant.
Conclusion: Smoking causes higher androgen levels in women, our results indicate that smoking discontinuation leads to their further increase.
The study was supported by Grant No. NS 10125-3 of the IGA MZCR and GAUK.
30 Apr - 04 May 2011
European Society of Endocrinology