The true prevalence of clinically significant endocrine disease in HIV is difficult to get a handle on as the literature is in many cases Declaration of interesting or insufficiently illuminating. There is clearly potential for endocrine dysfunction, via many mechanisms including directly due to HIV, due to atypical infections and the drugs used to treat them, side effects of both prescribed and non-prescribed medications and structural pathology. Probably the best described endocrine anomalies are the adverse metabolic effects of long term anti-retrovirals resulting in diabetes and dyslipidaemia. However adrenal, gonadal, pituitary, pancreatic and thyroid dysfunction are also reported. The evidence for and possible mechanisms underlying altered endocrine function will be reviewed and a pragmatic approach to endocrine assessment of the patient with HIV will be discussed.
Declaration of interest: There is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the research reported.
Funding: No specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sector.