Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that actively contributes to the development of the metabolic dysfunction but it is not homogenous and the nature of its impact considerably depends on its anatomic location. So far both subcutaneous and deep neck adipose tissue depots were individually related to increased metabolic risk but their particular features were not mutually compared. Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that has consistently showed higher mRNA expression in subcutaneous than in deep or visceral adipose tissue.
The aim of this study was to examine adiponectin gene expression in subcutaneous and deep perivascular neck adipose tissue and their association with metabolic risk factors in patients undergoing neck surgery.
Samples of both subcutaneous and deep adipose tissue along carotid artery were taken in 31 patients during routine thyroid or neck vascular surgery. We analysed adiponectin gene expression in these tissue samples by RQ-PCR method. Serum samples were taken preoperatively to determine insulin, glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements were also performed. Study participants did not have any inflammatory or malignant diseases.
Adiponectin gene expression was significantly higher in subcutaneous than in deep neck adipose tissue (P<0.05). Statistically significant negative correlations were found between subcutaneous adiponectin gene expression and body weight, waist cifcumference, neck circumference, glucose and HOMA index (P<0.05). Adiponectin gene expression in deep neck adipose tissue was only associated negatively with body weight (P<0.05).
These preliminary results support the hypothesis that subcutaneous and deep neck adipose tissue might have a different secretory profiles. We plan a broader comparative analysis of adipocytokines secretion in these depots of adipose tissue. This study might improve understanding whether these different adipose tissue depots have clinically recognizable endocrine or paracrine role that might be related to adverse metabolic factors or even atherosclerotic changes of carotid arteries.