Context: Acromegaly associated to schizophrenia was firstly reported ~60 years ago and, so far it is unclear whether this association is causal or not.
Objective: We report on three new cases and discuss the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of this association.
Results: We report two males and one female diagnosed with schizophrenia and treated for several years with antipsychotics who developed acromegaly due to a GH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma. In all cases the diagnosis of schizophrenia preceded acromegaly with mean disease duration of ~12 years. Antipsychotic therapy was different in every patient. Two patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Histopathological study showed mixed GH- and prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenoma in one patient and pure GH-secreting adenoma in the other one. Several pathophysiological mechanisms related to alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission due to psychiatric disease itself or its pharmacological treatment are proposed and discussed as likely linkage between schizophrenia and acromegaly.
Conclusion: These case reports suggest that schizophrenia and/or its antipsychotic therapy in the long-term might be in relation with the development of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.