Introduction: Acromegaly is a relatively rare endocrine condition caused by GH oversecretion by pituitary adenoma. Its most frequent complications include cardiovascular and respiratory system diseases with high tendency of neoplastic transformation and increased risk of benign and malignant tumors. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the prevalence of benign and malignant neoplasms in patients with acromegaly.
Materials and methods: We have searched the medical documentation of patients treated in our medical center from the years 20042013. The prevalence of benign and malignant neoplasms was analysed basing on the latest available records of particular patients.
Results: We have identified 180 patients with acromegaly (108 women, 72 men). The mean age at the time of last available assessment was 52.5 years (S.D. 12.2, median 54.0). The most common neoplastic comorbidity was observed in the thyroid −140 patients (77.8%) 110 patients with multinodular goiter (MNG) (61.1%) or resection of MNG in the past medical history. Adrenal adenomas were diagnosed in nine subjects (5%), prostate hyperplasia in six (8.3% of males), and polyps of the colon in 1.7% of all individuals. Among malignancies, the most common were thyroid cancer (n−11, 6.1%), breast cancer (n=5, 4.6% of women with acromegaly) and colonic cancer (n=4, 2.2%).
Conclusions: Patients with acromegaly present increased risk of neoplastic transformation, especially in the thyroid, adrenals, gastrointestinal tract and prostate. Among malignancies, thyroid, breast and colonic cancer were the most frequent. According to our results, active screening for potential malignancies should be an important part in the management of acromegaly.