Background: Magnesium (Mg) deficiency is a common problem in diabetic patients. Deficiency of Mg may increase the incidence of diabetes. Development of hypomagnesemia may affect glycaemic regulation and trigger complications of diabetes. The aim of our present study was to explore relationships between the serum Mg level and diabetes complications.
Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated 673 diabetic patients, of whom 57.8% were males and 42.2% females. Mean patient age was 55.6 years and the mean duration of diabetes 81±86.9 months.
Results: The mean level of HbA1c was 9.0±2.4% (4.518); the mean serum creatinine level 0.83±0.22 mg/dl (0.31.5); and the mean Mg level 1.97±0.25 (1.133.0) mg/dl. Total of 55 (8.2%) patients had diabetic retinopathy and 95 (14.1%) diabetic neuropathy. Of all patients, Five hundred patients 74.3% of patients had normoalbuminuria, 133 19.8% of microalbuminuria, and 40 5.9% of overt proteinuria. 171 patients (25.4%) had HbA1c levels equal or below 7%; and 502 patients (74.6%) had HbA1c levels above 7%. The patients were divided into two groups in terms of their serum Mg levels; low-level (≤1.8 μg/dl) and normal (1.92.6 μg/dl). No between-group difference in any of BMI, fat mass, total body water (TBW), fasting glucose (FG) level, lipid parameters, sodium or potassium levels, or glomerular filtration rate (GFR), was apparent. Although, the groups did not differ in terms of retinopathy or neuropathy levels, microalbuminuria was more common in hypomagnesemic patients (P=0.004). HbA1c levels did not differ between the groups (P=0.243). However, a weak negative correlation was apparent between serum Mg and HbA1c levels (r=−0.110, P=0.004) and also between serum Mg level and overt proteinuria (r=−0.127, P=0.018).
Conclusion: Mg depletion is a common problem in patients with diabetes mellitus. It affects both glycaemic regulation and emergency of complications. Serum Mg level affected both glycaemic regulation and the extent of emergency diabetic complications. Also, poor glycaemic regulation affected serum Mg levels.
16 - 20 May 2015
European Society of Endocrinology