Endocrine Abstracts (2015) 38 FP2 | DOI: 10.1530/endoabs.38.FP2

Corticosterone in human saliva is highly abundant and lacks a diurnal rhythm

Catriona Kyle, Rita Upreti, Anna Anderson, Shaoyun Chen, Natalie Homer, Ruth Andrew, Roland Stimson & Brian Walker

University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Human plasma contains both cortisol (F) and corticosterone (B). B has been largely neglected in humans as it is 10–20 times less abundant however previous studies suggest B and F have differential tissue-specific actions. Compared with F, B has an enhanced response to ACTH, relatively higher concentrations in brain and CSF and differential transmembrane trafficking by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Plasma F is bound to corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) and albumin with only 5–10% unbound. Our unpublished data suggest F has greater affinity than B for CBG and plasma B:F ratio is higher in the free than total pool. Salivary glucocorticoid measurement reflects unbound steroid in plasma and we hypothesised that salivary B:F ratio is similarly high compared with the total plasma pool.

With ethical approval, we collected salivary samples from 6 healthy male volunteers 5 times over 24 h (mean±S.D. age 32.8±11.9 years, BMI 23.8±4.2 kg/m2). B and F concentrations were measured by ELISA, using antibodies without significant cross-reactivity. Multiple pooled morning and evening samples from 1 volunteer were analysed by LCMS/MS for validation of ELISA results.

In healthy male samples, mean±S.D. B on waking was 3.94±1.24 nmol/l and F was 8.17±3.67 nmol/l whereas bedtime concentrations were 3.64±1.68 and 0.63±0.23 nmol/l, respectively. The mean B:F ratio was higher at bedtime than on waking (0.55±0.23 vs 6.28±3.49, P=0.01). LCMS/MS analysis confirmed high morning salivary B with lack of diurnal variation compared with F.

B and F are subject to differential peripheral handling. The B:F ratio is higher in saliva than in plasma, consistent with lower protein binding of B than F in plasma and/or selective steroid trafficking by ABC transporters in salivary glands. Diurnal B variation is absent compared with F, so that B concentrations are higher than F in the evening, consistent with differential adrenal control of B and F.

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