Background: Elevated HbA1c, cardio-vascular and immune dysfunctions are common complications of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D), which can be improved by aerobic and resistance exercises, respectively. Therefore, effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercises in acute and chronic conditions might also have beneficial health outcomes and was investigated.
Objective: Determine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercises on serum nitric oxide (NO) level, cardio-vascular, and immune functions in acute versus chronic exercise conditions, in T2D conditions.
Methods: 24 (ten males and 14 females) consenting patients (aged 5273 years) with type 2-diabetes were consecutively recruited at Diocesan Hospital Amichi, in an experimental study. Seven participants (Acute Exercise Group- AEG) received one bout of combined (15 min) moderate intensity aerobic (using bicycle ergometer) and (15 min) resistance exercises (using 4060% resistance at 1-repetitive maximum), ten repetitions per set, and three sets per session. Five participants completed 8 weeks of the same (Chronic Exercise Group CEG) protocol, thrice weekly. Blood meals were taken before-after experiment, and analyzed. Data were tested for normality with Shapiro-Wilk test, and analysed with student t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient, at P 0.05.
Results: Baseline versus post-treatment values of diastolic blood pressure (DBP), for both groups, were significantly elevated, but with a large effect size, in only the CEG. HBA1c and NO were only increased for CEG, and had a large effect size. However, eosinophil was significantly increased in AEG alone, and had a large effect size. HbA1c was positively and significantly correlated with NO in AEG and CEG, but CEG had a superior effect, and larger effect size.
Conclusion: Acute combined aerobic and resistance exercises may enhance immune function, and insulin action at the skeletal muscles. However, its chronic application might induce vasodilation and reduce peripheral resistance to stabilize the blood pressure, and is of clinical significance.