Endocrine Abstracts (2017) 49 OC5.4 | DOI: 10.1530/endoabs.49.OC5.4

Food history characterization of Portuguese centenarians, nutritional biomarkers and cardiovascular risk: case control study

Alda Pereira da Silva1,2, Catarina Chaves3, Andreia Matos1,5, Angela Gil1,5, Carolina Santos1,5, Ana Valente4, Manuel Bicho1,5 & João Gorjão Clara2

1Genetics Laboratory, Environmental Health Institute – ISAMB, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal; 2Geriatric Universitary Unit of Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal; 3Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, Lisbon, Portugal; 4Department of Nutritional Science, Atlantica University, Barcarena, Portugal; 5Instituto de Investigação Científica Bento da Rocha Cabral, Lisbon, Portugal.

Introduction: Eating habits may contribute to longevity. Consumption of red meat, source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol may be associated with increased risks of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality risk.

Methods: We studied 521 subjects, both genders, 253 centenarians (CENT) (100.26±1.98 age) and 268 controls (67.51±3.25 age), both low (LCR) and high cardiovascular risk (HCR), calculated based on QRISK®2-2016. Anthropometric and body composition analysis were evaluated by bioimpedance. The abdominal obesity (cm), BMI (kg/m2) and the cut-off for fat mass (FM) by gender, defined according WHO. Sarcopenia defined by muscle-mass index cut-off≤16.7 kg/m2. Statistical methods were chi-square test, ANOVA and binary logistic regression.

Results: There were differences in the distribution of food frequency history between centenarians and controls concerning food groups except oilseeds. The daily intake of red meat, adjusted for age and gender, was a protective factor for sarcopenia (OR=0.25, CI 95%=0.096–0.670, P=0.006), but contributes for FM excess (OR=4.946, CI 95%=1.471–16.626, P=0.01), overweight and obesity (OR=4.804, CI 95%=1.666–13.851, P=0.004). Only 2% of the centenarians reported this eating habit unlike the 64.3% of the HCR group. The frequency history of red meat intake was associated with higher cardiovascular risk (χ2=239,807; df=8, P<0.0001), as well as canned food intake (χ2=225.321; df=8, P<0.0001). Basal metabolism (Kcal) was lower in centenarians and higher in HCR group (CENT=1176.78±201.98; LCR=1356.54±170.65; HCR=1561.33±267.85; P<0.0001), in the same way as BMI (CENT=21,06±3.68; LCR=28.49±4.69; HCR=29.56±5.26; P<0.0001), waist circumference (CENT=85.29±10.83; LCR=96.02±11.71; HCR=104.50±11.84; P<0.0001) and hip-waist ratio (CENT=0.88±0.07; LCR=0.92±0.08; HCR=1.01±0.08; P<0.0001).

Conclusions: Centenarians have different food history than the control population. Frequent consumption of red meat may contribute to obesity and increased cardiovascular risk, since the hemic iron of red meat may catalyze oxidations leading to disease processes. The low frequency of this consumption, observed in centenarians, although associated with sarcopenia, may be one of the keys to longevity.

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