Background: Leptin facilitates onset of puberty by impacting hypothalamic Kisspeptin, gonadotropin releasing hormone, follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone. The link of peripheral Leptin-Kisspeptin in regulating the ovarian and endometrial tissue in relation to adiposity is unknown. Therefore, we wanted to identify their association with body mass index (BMI) and success of assisted reproductive treatments (ART) in infertile females.
Methods: A cross sectional study was carried from August 2014 till May 2015 after receiving ethical approval. The study group comprised of females with an age range of 25-37 year who had duration of unexplained infertility for more than two years. They were grouped as; underweight (<18 kg/m2), normal weight (18-22.9 kg/m2), overweight 23-24.99 kg/m2 and obese (>25 kg/m2). Kisspeptin and Leptin levels were measured by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay before down regulation of ovaries and initiation of treatment protocol of ART.Failure of procedure was detected by beta human chorionic gonadotropin <25 mIU/ml (non-pregnant) whereas females with levels >25 mIU/ml and cardiac activity on trans-vaginal scan were declared pregnant.
Results: Highest Kisspeptin and Leptin levels were seen in normal weight group (374.80 ± 185.08 ng/L; 12.78 ± 6.8 pg/ml) respectively, yet the highest number of clinical pregnancy was observed in overweight group (42%).A strong correlation of Kisspeptin with Leptin (r=0.794, P=0.001) was observed in the overweight females
Conclusion: Leptin-Kisspeptin-fertility link is expressed by maximum number of clinical pregnancies in the female group that showed strongest relationship between serum Leptin and Kisspeptin levels, irrespective of their BMI.