Aims: To determine predictors of neonatal adiposity and differences in associations by fetal sex in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), normal-weight and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m²) normal glucose tolerant women (NGT).
Methods: Skinfold thickness was measured in 576 newborns, and cord blood leptin, c-peptide and lipids in 327 newborns in a multi-centric prospective cohort study.
Results: Compared to neonates of normal-weight NGT women (327), neonates of women with GDM (97) were at higher risk of being large-for-gestational age (LGA) (16.5% vs 8.6%, P = 0.024) but the macrosomia rate (8.2% vs 5.8%, P = 0.388), sum of skinfolds (13.9 mm ± 2.9 vs 13.3 mm ± 2.6, P = 0.067), neonatal fat mass (1333.0 g ± 166.8 vs 1307.3 g ± 160.9, P = 0.356), and cord blood biomarkers were not significantly different. Compared to neonates of normal-weight NGT women, neonates of overweight NGT women (152) had higher rates of macrosomia (12.5% vs 5.8%, P = 0.012), LGA (17.1% vs 8.6%, P = 0.006), higher sum of skinfolds (14.3 mm ± 2.6 vs 13.2 mm ± 2.6, P < 0.001), neonatal fat mass (1386.0 g ± 168.6 vs 1307.3 g ± 160.9, P < 0.001), % neonatal fat mass > 90th percentile (15.2% vs 7.1%, P < 0.001), without significant differences in cord blood biomarkers. Maternal BMI, fasting glycaemia, insulin resistance, triglycerides, gestational weight gain, cord blood leptin and cord blood triglycerides were independent predictors for neonatal adiposity. Gestational weight gain was positively associated with adiposity in boys only.
Conclusions: Compared to neonates of normal-weight NGT women, neonates of GDM women have higher LGA rates but similar adiposity, while neonates of overweight NGT women have increased adiposity. Limiting gestational weight gain might be especially important in the male fetus to reduce neonatal adiposity.
11 Nov 2020 - 11 Nov 2020