Objectives: We have examined the relationship between the hepatic enzymes and type 2 diabetes. We have analyzed if the levels of hepatic enzymes are associated with body weight, lipid profile and the treatment with metformin, thiazolidinediones or statins.
Methods: 318 patients with type 2 diabetes were included and they were compared with 100 healthy subjects. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gammaglutamiltranspeptidase (GGT) were measured. We studied the lipid profile, the weight and the treatment with metformin, thiazolidinediones and statins, analyzing possible differences in hepatic function.
Results: Type 2 diabetic patients showed significantly increased levels of GGT that the population control (48.3±5.2 vs 25.6±2.1 U/l respectively; P<0.01). The difference was confirmed after adjustment for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). There were no differences in the levels of ALT, AST. Levels of GGT upper the normality were presented in 33.0% of type 2 diabetic patients and 13% of healthy subjects. The diabetic subjects showed higher triglycerides and more reduced LDL-c and HDL-c levels. Lipid profile and body weight were not correlated by the hepatic function. The diabetic patients treated with metformin presented lower levels of ALT (31.3±2.7 vs 22.1±2.2 U/l; P<0.05). There were no differences in patients treated with statins or thiazolidinediones.
Conclusions: Increased levels of GGT are closely associated with type 2 diabetes, and this association is independent of the BMI. Metformin has been associated with reduced levels of ALT.