Several studies show that characteristics of metabolic syndrome are often seen in patients with adrenal incidentaloma. The aim of our study was to evaluate metabolic factors in these patients. 208 patients (148 female and 60 male, age 55.08±11.02 ys and BMI 27.91±4.6 kg/m2) were admitted and biochemical, endocrine testing were performed. Lipid status: cholesterol 5.77±1.26 mmol/L, triglyceride 1.92±0.98 mmol/L. 113(55%) patients were hypertensive (mean systolic pressure was 150.3±30.12 mmHg, diastolic 92.93±16.48 mmHg). 34 (16.35%) patients had type 2 diabetes. According to OGTT (performed in 131 patients) more than 50% were diabetic or showed glucose intolerance. Insulin sensitivity was calculated by HOMA, QUIQI formula and 56,86% of patients had insulin resistance. After endocrine evaluation we divided them in two groups: first with subclinical hypercorticism and second without hypercorticism. First group: 46 patients (38 woman and 8 man mean age 56.6±9.25 ys and BMI 27.83±4.37 kg/m2). Second group: 162 patients (110 women and 52 men, age 54.66±11.45 years and BMI 27.93±4.67 kg/m2). No statistically significant difference was found for cholesterol (5.68±1.24 vs. 6.09±1.29 mmol/L; P> 0.05) and triglyceride (1.88±0.9 vs. 2.08±1.22 mmol/L; P>0.05) between these subgroups. We also find no statistically significant difference in insulin resistance between groups (QUIQI: 0.34±0.05 vs. 0.33±0.03; P> 0.05). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was not significantly higher in subgroup with sublinical hypercorticism (149.6±29.92 vs. 152.7±31.02 mmHg; p> 0.05 and 92.38±16.42 vs. 94.89±16.74 mmHg; P>0.05).
Significant number of patients with adrenal incidentaloma had characteristics of metabolic syndrome even without proved endocrine hypersecretion. These patients are at high risk for cardiovascular events. Well-defined international study protocols should include screening for metabolic syndrome.