Background: Increased consumption of fish and fish oil as a source of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n−3 LC-PUFA), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) is often associated with decreased mortality (as well as morbidity) from cardiovascular disease. Treatment with n-3 LC-PUFA augments circulating adiponectin levels via a PPARγ-dependent mechanism in animal models. Given that adiponectin is known to exert antiinflammatory effects and enhance insulin sensitivity, it is conceivable that n-3 LC-PUFA could impede the adipose tissue switch to an inflammatory gene expression profile in response to obesity via a PPARγ- and adiponectindependent mechanism.
Aim: To evaluate the effect of n-3 LC-PUFA on plasma adiponectin levels and components of the Metabolic syndrome (Met-S).
Methods: 35 overweight and obese adults (28<BMI<36 kg/m2), aged 1865 years, having developed the features of Met-S (IDF definition, 2005) were randomized to 2 gr. n-3 LC-PUFA daily or placebo for 3 months. All subjects were instructed to follow ad libitum diet without change in dietary lifestyle during that period. Metabolic parameters, plasma adiponectrin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and CRP were measured before and after treatment.
Results: After 3 months, plasma adiponectin concentrations were increased by 44% (P<0.001). HDL cholesterol concentrations were increased by 10% (P<0.001). Triglycerides was decreased by 39%, HOMA IR decreased with 34% and CRP decreased with 20%. There were no significant complications resulting from treatment with n-3 LC-PUFA.
Conclusion: n-3 LC-PUFA may contribute to decreasing the burden of the metabolic syndrome, such as modulating inflammation, lipid abnormalities, endothelial function, and blood pressure via adiponectindependent mechanism.