Pathogenesis of thyroid cancer involves a number of biological, and environmental factors. The growth factors have mitogenic, proliferative and dedifferentiating effects. Some of the cytokines: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF), Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) are detected in a neoplasmatic tissue. Moreover, there are affected thyroid cancer cell growth and function in vitro.
Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to detect if the mitogenic cytokines level is higher in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) than in healthy subjects.
Material and methods: There was two groups analysed in this study: 59 patients with DTC (follicular and papillary histotype) age 28 to 68 year and 21 healthy person in the similar age. The personal and familial history of thyroid disease and other chronic diseases was excluded by anamnesis. Blood level of VEGF, FGF and HGF were measured by ELISA kits R&D Systems USA in both groups.
Results: In DTC patients VEGF was significantly higher than in control group: 362.24 pg/ml, vs 198.24 pg/ml. There were no statistic differences between patients wit papillary and follicular histotype. VEGF was highest (413.35 pg/ml) in metastatic patients. FGF was higher in patients (8.37 pg/ml) than in controls (4.10 pg/ml) and in patients with follicular histotype (9.19 pg/ml) than in papillary histoptype (7.85 pg/ml). There were no differences in patients with or without metastases: 7.51 pg/ml vs. 7.37 pg/ml. HGF level in DTC patients was 1434.70 pg/ ml, and in controls 1294.18 pg/ml respectively.
Conclusions: The growth factors: VEGF, and FGF could be sensitive but perhaps not specific peripheral markers of thyroid gland cancer especially in metastatic patients.
Keywords: differentiated thyroid cancer, growth factors, VEGF, HGF, FGF.