Objective: Abnormal lipid profile is an important risk factor in the development of macrovascular atherosclerotic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in type 2 diabetics with and without coronary artery disease (CAD).
Materials and methods: We studied 80 patients with T2D, 40 with CAD and 40 without CAD. We also studied 50 non-diabetics, 30 with CAD, and 20 without CAD. Lipid profile was estimated by the total, HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride (TG). To evaluate the oxidative status we measured circulating malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), as well as vitamin E and C.
Results: No significant difference was found in the lipid profile in patients with T2D and CAD patients. There was significantly difference in the level of MDA between the groups. In diabetics, MDA positively correlated with the total cholesterol, LDL -C, total lipid, and the relations between LDL/HDL and TG/HDL (P<0.001). In non-diabetic with CAD group, MDA positively correlated with total cholesterol, (P<0.05). There was significant difference in the SOD, glutathione, vitamin E / total lipid and vitamin C between the groups of diabetics and were lower in the diabetes group with CAD (P<0.05). There were significant negative correlations between MDA and vitamin E and C in groups with T2D, but it was statistically significant in the non-diabetic with CAD (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes is associated with excess risk of CAD and primary therapy should be directed first at lowering lipid peroxidation. CAD and T2D alone and combined carry similar atherosclerotic burden concerning lipid profile, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidative status and lipid peroxidation.