Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are insulin resistant. The effect of PHPT on lipid levels and low-grade inflammation leves is unknown. The aim of our study was to estimate the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with PHPT. Methods: In patients with PHPT (N=19; age: 58.15±8.38 years; PTH 180.83±104.15 ng/l, calcium 2.97±0.19 mmol/l) insulin sensitivity (measured using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp - M value), lipids (total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, ApoA1 and ApoB) and CRP levels were measured. Results: There were low-normal level of insulin sensitivity (M value: 4.29±0.52), slightly elevated levels of total cholesterol (6.07±1.39 mmol/l) and LDL-C (3.72±1.04 mmol/l) and normal levels of HDL (1.28±0.08 mmol/l), triglycerides (1.80±0.19 mmol/l), ApoA1 (1.54±0.09 g/l), ApoB (1.19±0.09 g/l) and CRP (1.58±0.52 mg/dl) levels. There were negative correlations between M index and total cholesterol (r=−0.56, P<0.05) and Apo B (r=−0.77, P<0.05) levels, while there was positive correlation between PTH and CRP levels (r=0.55, P<0.05). In conclusion, low-normal insulin sensitivity and elevated levels of total holesterol and LDL-C were observed in our group of patients with PHPT. Further evaluation of low-grade inflammation is necessery in this group of patients.