Introduction: Adiponectin shows its beneficial insulin-sensitizing properties, however, women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) present hypoadiponectinemia.
Aim of the study: To assess the expression of adiponectin gene as well as its AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 receptors in placenta and adipose tissue and to determine potential correlations with chosen metabolic parameters (clinical and biochemical).
Patients and methods: Thirty-six pregnant women, who for obstetric reasons underwent cesarean sections, were divided into two groups. The study group included 20 women diagnosed with GDM by routine prenatal tests, whereas the control group comprised 16 women with normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Intraperitoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained intraoperatively from all women, whereas the placental samples were obtained straight after delivery. Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 gene expressions were assessed using the r-tPCR method.
Results: Serum glucose and insulin concentrations, HOMA-IR and HOMA-B levels were significantly higher in the GDM group, whereas the QUICKI values were respectively lower. Adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower in the study group than in the control one 4.9 ng/ml (4.45.8) vs 5.9 ng/ml (5.18.0 ng/ml). The expression of AdipoR1 receptor was significantly higher in the study group, whereas there was no significant difference between the expression of adiponectin and AdipoR2 receptors between the groups.
Conclusion: Impaired glucose tolerance in women with GDM modifies the expression of AdipoR1 in placenta and adipose tissue, but it does not affect the level of expression of adiponectin mRNA and AdipoR2.