Background and aims: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most prevalent and dangerous chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. Its end-stage, renal chronic failure is the most important cause of premature death in diabetic patients. Microalbuminuria (MA), one of the first signs of diabetic nephropathy, may be present from the moment of diagnosis in type 2 diabetes. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria and to identify predictor factors in a group of Albanian diabetic adult patients.
Material and methods: Diabetic patients selected randomly, assigned by hospital admissions in Tirana University Hospital Center, Shkodra and Pogradec regional hospitals. Biochemical examinations, anthropometric measurements, and measurement of microalbuminuria by DCA 2000 in a urine spot, was performed. Microalbuminuria was considered positive if ≥20 mg or albumine/creatinine report ≥25.
Results: 321 patients participated in the study. 163 women (50.78%). The mean age 58.21±11.87 years, type 1 diabetes 19 patients (8.6%), mean diabetes duration 8.19±6.96, and mean HbA1c 8.2±2.1%. Prevalence of MA 40.81%, while the overt diabetic nephropathy was present in 2.8% of cases. 9/27 patients (33.3%) with newly diagnosed diabetes presented already MA. Central obesity, presence of hypertension >140/90 mmHg, HbA1c >8%, and diabetes duration >15 years were risk factors for microalbuminuria.
Conclusions: Diabetic nephropathy is a common chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. Its early detection, and an aggressive treatment of its risk factors may prevent its progression. The search for the presence of MA might be part of the initial assessment for each person with type 2 diabetes.