Background: Most studies of the metabolic syndrome (MS) among HIV patients focus on those receiving HAART. This study determined the prevalence and factors associated with MS among HAART naïve HIV patients in Kano, Nigeria.
Methods: In this descriptive study, we evaluated 150 consecutive HAART naive HIV patients attending the HIV clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Data on socio-demography, relevant clinical history, anthropometric indices, and blood pressure (BP) were recorded for each participant. Fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile were assessed. MS was defined using NCEP/ATP III and IDF criteria. Insulin resistance (IR) for those with MS was calculated using HOMA-IR.
Results: The mean±S.D. age of the study participants was 34.0±9.7 years. There were 54 (36%) males and 96 (64%) females, P=1.00. The prevalence of MS was 5.3 and 9.3% using the NCEP/ATP III and 9.3% IDF criteria respectively. According to gender, 3.7% of males and 6.3% of females had MS (NCEP/ATP III), while according to IDF criteria, 7.4% of males and 10.4% of females had MS, P>0.05. Using the NCEP-ATP III, 87.5% satisfied three criteria while 12.5% met all five components of the criteria. When IDF criteria were used, 78.6, 14.3, and 7.1% met three to five components respectively. Elevated BP was the commonest component of MS using both criteria. Using ATP III criteria, the factors associated with MS were abnormal waist circumference and increased waist:hip ratio (P<0.05). When IDF criteria were used, the factors associated with MS were advanced age, increased BMI and waist:hip ratio (P<0.05).The prevalence of IR among participants with MS was 25.0%.
Conclusion: HIV patients are not spared from the emerging epidemic of MS even in the absence of HAART. Metabolic assessment should be a routine in all HIV patients regardless of HAART treatment status.