Introduction: Mast cells are critical effectors in inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and their associated complications. These cells exert their physiological and pathological activities by releasing granules containing histamine, cytokines, chemokines, and proteases, including mast cell-specific chymases and tryptases.
Aim of the study: To detect the role of mast cell in diabetic obese and correlation to different diabetic complications.
Subject and method: Seventy Type 2 diabetic obese patients attending the Diabetes and Endocrinology clinic in Kasr El Ani hospital compared to 15 healthy control.
Full medical history, complete physical examination, Anthropometric measurements (BMI, waist circumference) Michigan neuropathy score, Echo heart, fundus examination, fasting glucoseHbA1C serum cholesterol triglycerides-LDL-HDL(assessed after 12 h fasting) A/C ratio and Typtase level.
Results: Statistical difference between patients and control regarding BMI, glucose, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, tryptase (P<0.001), triglycerides (P=0.001). Tryptase correlated with BMI, fasting glucose, HbA1C, triglycerides which is statistically significant (P=0.014, r=0.031)/(P=0.012, r=0.297)/(P<0.001, r=0.862), (P=0.039, r=0.247). Tryptase is higher in patients with complication mean value (39.32±4.9) ng/ml. Four patients with retinopathy, six patients with peripheral neuropathy, three patients diabetic nephropathy, eight patients ischeamic heart disease , three patients with cerebro vascular disease.
Highest level in patients with diabetic nephropathy mean (38.2±3.7) ng/ml.
Conclusion: Tryptase participate in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complication targeting mast cells as novel therapy for diabetes requires further investigations.
Keywords: Diabetes, mast cells tryptase, complication.