Background and aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorder in women with reproductive age. Nodular goiter and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) are frequently seen endocrinological abnormalities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of AITD and nodular goiter in PCOS patients and investigate whether PCOS related hormones and metabolic factors affect these thyroid disorders.
Methods: Ninety-seven with PCOS and seventy-one healthy female volunteers were recruited in the present study. Serum free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (anti-TPO Ab), and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg Ab) were measured. Thyroid ultrasonography was performed and thyroid volume (TV) was calculated.
Results: The BMI, waist/hip ratio, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, TG and LDL-C were significantly higher in PCOS patients (P<0.05). HDL-C were significantly higher in control group (P=0.005). The mean thyroid volume was 11.4±4.7 ml in PCOS patients while 9.9±2.8 ml in controls (P=0.022). Twenty nine PCOS patients (29/97; 29.9%) had thyroid nodule whereas only eleven control subjects had thyroid nodule (11/71; 15.5%) (P=0.043). The frequency of AITD was significantly higher in PCOS patients (P=0.001). Statistically significant relationship was found between thyroid volume and age, BMI, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR (P<0.05). Participants with thyroid nodule were older and had higher BMI, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values compared to participants without thyroid nodule (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Our study showed that TV and frequency of nodular goiter were increased in PCOS patients. This result has been associated with insulin resistance. Therefore we recommend PCOS patients must be monitored for the development of nodular goiter and AITD.
20 May 2017 - 23 May 2017