Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency seems to be common in pregnant women and would be associated with an increased risk of maternal and fetal poor outcomes.
Aim of the study: Determine the prevalence and the main risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women living in a locality of Algiers.
Material and method: It is a cross-sectional prospective and descriptive study. 310 pregnant women of west Algiers were followed during their pregnancy, by Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) sampling between 24 and 28 weeks of amenorrhea and a second one between 37 and 40 weeks. An univariate and a logistic regression test was assessed to identify potential factors for vitamin D deficiency, and an univariate analysis to assess impact of this deficiency on the course of the pregnancy and on the newborn.
Results: We have followed 310 pregnant women with a mean age of 30.36±5.38 years. Mean BMI is 26.67±4.49 kg/m2. Mean plasmatic level of Vitamin D in the second trimester of pregnancy is 7.80±5.06 ng/ml 433.6 ng/ml. 96.1% of pregnant women had levels of vitamin D under 20 ng/ml; 88.7% levels of vitamin D under 12 ng/ml, and a severe deficiency under 5 ng/ml in 27.1% of the women. The same results are found at the end of the pregnancy with a mean level of vitamin D of 7.39±5.11 ng/ml 442,4 ng/ml. 96.2% of the pregnant women have a vitamin D level inferior to 20 ng/ml, 89.3% inferior to 12 ng/ml, and a severe deficiency in 33.8% of the cohort. The daily dietary intake of vitamin D is estimated at 260.00±254.80 UI/j, clearly lower than the recommended dose. Vitamin D deficiency risks factors founded in the logistic regression analyse are seasons of low sunshine, ORa 3,116, IC à 95% 1,5246,371, P=0,002, the wear of covering clothes ORa 13,131(IC à 95%: 4,08442,217), P<10−3, and non vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy ORa 5,841(IC à 95% 2,89013,105) P<10−3. We did not find any statistic link between vitamin D deficiency and obstetric complications: pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery and Caesarean Delivery. Neither the link with low birth weight and neonatal hypocalcaemia.
Conclusion: It is the First study evaluating the status of vitamin D in pregnant women carried out in Algeria. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency indicates the need for urgent implementation of national recommendations.
18 - 21 May 2019
European Society of Endocrinology