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Endocrine Abstracts (2021) 73 OC2.2 | DOI: 10.1530/endoabs.73.OC2.2

ECE2021 Oral Communications Oral Communications 2: Diabetes, Obesity, Metabolism and Nutritionw (6 abstracts)

Autoantibodies in prediction of diabetes after gestational diabetes – A 23-year prospective cohort study

Kaisu Luiro1, Anna-Maaria Auvinen2, 3, Juha Auvinen4, Juha Jokelainen4, 5, Ilkka Järvelä2, Knip Mikael6, 7, 8 & Juha Tapanainen1, 2, 3

1Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki, Finland; 2Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oulu, Finland; 3University of Oulu, Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu, Finland; 4University of Oulu, Center for Life Course Health Research, Oulu, Finland; 5Oulu University Hospital, Primary Care, Oulu, Finland; 6University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Children’s Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 7University of Helsinki, Research Program for Clinical and Molecular Metabolism, Helsinki, Finland; 8Tampere University Hospital, Tampere Center for Child Health Research, Tampere, Finland


To study the predictive value of autoantibodies in progression to type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) diabetes after gestational diabetes (GDM) in a 23-year follow-up study.


Women with GDM are at high risk for T2DM later in life, but also the risk of T1DM is increased. We have previously reported a prospective 6-year cohort study showing an association of islet cell and glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies, GDM below the age of 30 years and the need for insulin treatment during pregnancy with a high risk of progression to T1DM. Recently, we reported the results of a 23-year follow-up showing that 5.7% of women with GDM developed T1DM and the disease progression was predictable with high OGTT 2-hour glucose levels during pregnancy. In addition, 50.4% of women developed T2DM after GDM with a linear incidence until the end of the study.

Study Design

This is a prospective cohort study including 391 women with GDM and 391 age-, parity–and delivery date-matched controls who delivered in 1984–1994. Four autoantibodies associated with T1DM were analysed from first trimester samples; islet cell (ICAs), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADAs), insulin (IAAs) and insulinoma-associated antigen 2 autoantibodies (IA-2As). A follow-up questionnaire assessing later T1DM and T2DM morbidity was sent in 2012–2013. The mean follow-up time was 23.1 (18.7–28.8) years, which is to our knowledge, the longest follow-up to date.


Single autoantibody positivity was detected in 12% (41/391) of the GDM cohort and in 2.3% (8/391) of the control cohort. In the GDM cohort, 2.6% (9/391) tested positive for two autoantibodies and 2.3% (8/391) for three autoantibodies, whereas only one subject in the control cohort had two autoantibodies detected. ICA positivity was found in 12.5% of the cases, followed by GADA (6.0%), IA2A (4.9%) and IAA (1.2%). In the control cohort, GADA positivity was found in 1.4%, IA2A in 0.8%, IAA in 0.6%, and ICA in 0.3% of the subjects. Detection of ICA, GADA and/or IA-2A autoantibodies decreased T1DM-free survival time and time to diagnosis. All subjects with three positive autoantibodies developed T1DM within seven years from the GDM pregnancy. Development of T2DM after GDM occurred independent of autoantibody positivity.


Development of T1DM can be reliably predicted with GADA and ICA autoantibodies during early pregnancy. We recommend that women with high glucose values in OGTT and insulin treatment be tested for autoantibodies to identify individuals with high risk of T1DM later in life.

Volume 73

European Congress of Endocrinology 2021

22 May 2021 - 26 May 2021

European Society of Endocrinology 

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