Background: The management of diabetic foot starts with prevention, mainly based on the early detection of peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease, called podiatric risk assessment. This risk must be evaluated in all type 2 diabetics since the discovery. The aim of this study was the assessment of diabetic foot ulcer risk according to International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) and the identification of risk factors for developing foot lesions.
Methods: We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study that concerned 60 diabetic patients hospitalized in the Department C of the National Institute of Nutrition between July and September 2021.
Results: Mean age of patients was 59,1±12,23 years with sex ratio 0.66. Half patients were hypertensive, 64,4% had a personal history of dyslipidemia and 34% were smokers. All patients had Type 2 diabetes with evolution duration 9,33± 6,26 years. The majority of patients (91,7%) had uncontrolled diabetes and 66,7% had microangiopathy (retinopathy and nephropathy). Thirteen patients (21%) had a foot at risk. On clinical examination, neuropathy was found in 21% of cases, while lower limb arteriopathy in 14,3%. Patients were classified into four risk groups according to IWGDF criteria as follows: grade 0: 78,3%; grade 1: 13,3%; grade 2: 6,7% and grade 3: 1,7%. There was statistically significant relationship between LDL cholesterol (P = 0,035), microangiopathy (P = 0,003) and foot risk grade. Patients sex, BMI, diabetes duration, smoking, and HBA1c did not have significant association with risk of diabetic foot ulcer.
Conclusion: Diabetic foot remains a major health problem and a frequent cause of limb amputation. Podiatric risk assessment represents a key tool to avoid many dreaded complications.
21 May 2022 - 24 May 2022