Intoduction: Diabetic retinopathy remains one of the major causes of blindness. The management of the diabetic patient is multidisciplinary. The objective is to study the prevalence of retinopathy in a group of type 2 diabetic patients and to update the risk factors.
Patients and methods: This is a cross-sectional study during 3 years of 129 type 2 diabetic patients followed up for endocrinology and metabolic diseases at the Mohammed VI University Hospital of Oujda, who received an ophthalmological evaluation.
Results: The average age of the patients is 58.2 years, with a female predominance. The reason for hospitalization was dominated by diabetic imbalance. One-third of the population had a high blood pressure. The fundoscopic exam revealed a diabetic retinopathy in 44.5% of cases, with a non-proliferative type in 67.4% of cases and a proliferative type in the 32.6% other. Diabetics with retinopathy had a duration of diabetes more than 10 years in 60.4% of cases, and a poor glycemic control (HBA1C> 8%) in 76.2% of cases. There is a significant correlation between retinopathy and dyslipidemia (63.15% of cases) (P 0.009). Diabetic retinopathy was associated with arterial hypertension in 47% of cases, and nephropathy in 18% of cases.
Conclusion: Our study showed that the glycemic imbalance, the age of diabetes and dyslipidemia predisposed to retinal damage, hence the importance of optimal glycemic control at the discovery of diabetes and regular monitoring by fundoscopic exam.
18 - 21 May 2019
European Society of Endocrinology