Introduction: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a disorder of glucose tolerance which is diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. Thyroid disease is common in women of reproductive age and during gestation; both diseases have an adverse impact on pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics in women with co-existing GDM and thyroid disease.
Material and methods: In total, 112 pregnant women were included in the study, diagnosed as having GDM (n=42), thyroid disease (n=40) or both GDM and thyroid disease (n=30). All women attended an academic hospital outpatient clinic. They were assessed through personal, obstetric and family history, clinical examination, and fetal ultrasonography in the 32nd gestational week.
Results: Women with co-existing GDM and thyroid disease were older than those with GDM or thyroid disease alone (36.3±5.0 vs 34.7±3.7 vs 33.6±4.2 years, respectively, P=0.03). Gestational weight gain (GWG) at birth was higher in women with thyroid disease alone in comparison to the other groups (13.9±5.7 vs 11.0±5.6 vs 9.4±8.9 kg, respectively, P=0.025). Fetal ultrasound characteristics (estimated fetal weight, head circumference, bilateral diameter, abdominal circumference, femoral length) did not differ among the three groups. Pregnancy outcomes (gestational week at birth, birthweight) did not also differ among the three groups.
Conclusion: Co-existence of GDM and thyroid disease do not modify ultrasound characteristics and pregnancy outcomes compared with either disease alone. These results, though need to be confirmed by larger studies, may reflect the optimal clinical management of these patients.
18 - 21 May 2019
European Society of Endocrinology